x RARE Advertising Trade Card - Railroad Boy Western Steam Tobacco 1870s Uncut

$1,316.25 Buy It Now or Best Offer 23h 34m, $26.12 Shipping, 14-Day Returns, eBay Money Back Guarantee

Seller: dalebooks (8,065) 100%, Location: Rochester, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 302843542155 VERY RARE Original Advertising Trade Card Railroad Boy Western Steam Tobacco Works ca 1870 For offer, a nice old advertising tradecard. Fresh from an estate in Upstate / Western NY. Never offered on the market until now. Vintage, Old, antique, Original - NOT a Reproduction - Guaranteed !! Nice color litho graphics! I could only locate one other full uncut example of this, which sold in 2001 for $800. Very rare. B. [ Bernhard] Leidersdorf Company, Milwaukee - the best Virginia long cut Cavendish, smoking tobacco. Illustration by the Milwaukee Litho & Eng co. Measures 5 1/2 x 3 1/4 inches. In very good condition overall. Light crease to lower rh corner, upper lh corner lightly bumped, light wear, mostly to corners, and a few "bends" - not creass - and a roundish impression in one area. Please see photos for details. If you collect Americana advertisement ad, 19th century American history, Victorian trade card related, cigar related, tobacciana, etc., this is one you will not see again soon. A nice piece for your paper or ephemera collection. Perhaps some genealogy research information as well. Combine shipping on multiple bid wins! 1644 Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them. The plant is part of the genus Nicotiana and of the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. While more than 70 species of tobacco are known, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum. The more potent variant N. rustica is also used around the world. Tobacco contains the alkaloid nicotine, which is a stimulant, and harmala alkaloids.[2] Dried tobacco leaves are mainly used for smoking in cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, and flavored shisha tobacco. They can also be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus. Tobacco use is a risk factor for many diseases, especially those affecting the heart, liver, and lungs, as well as many cancers. In 2008, the World Health Organization named tobacco as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death.[3] EtymologyThe English word "tobacco" originates from the Spanish and Portuguese word "tabaco". The precise origin of this word is disputed, but it is generally thought to have derived at least in part, from Taino, the Arawakan language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to mean either a roll of tobacco leaves (according to Bartolomé de las Casas, 1552) or to tabago, a kind of Y-shaped pipe used for sniffing tobacco smoke (according to Oviedo; with the leaves themselves being referred to as cohiba).[4][5] However, perhaps coincidentally, similar words in Spanish, Portuguese and Italian were used from 1410 to define medicinal herbs believed to have originated from the Arabic طُبّاق ṭubbāq (also طُباق ṭubāq), a word reportedly dating to the 9th century, as a name for various herbs.[6][7] HistoryMain article: History of tobaccoSee also: History of commercial tobacco in the United States William Michael Harnett (American, 1848-1892), Still Life with Three Castles Tobacco, 1880, Brooklyn MuseumTraditional use The earliest depiction of a European man smoking, from Tabacco by Anthony Chute, 1595 A man smoking Tabacco on Hukka in Darchula, NepalTobacco has long been used in the Americas, with some cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to 1400–1000 BC.[8] Many Native American tribes have traditionally grown and used tobacco. Eastern North American tribes historically carried tobacco in pouches as a readily accepted trade item, as well as smoking it, both socially and ceremonially, such as to seal a peace treaty or trade agreement.[9][10] In some populations, tobacco is seen as a gift from the Creator, with the ceremonial tobacco smoke carrying one's thoughts and prayers to the Creator.[11] Popularization An illustration from Frederick William Fairholt's Tobacco, its History and Association, 1859 Tobacco plant and tobacco leaf from the Deli plantations in Sumatra, 1905Following the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, tobacco became increasingly popular as a trade item. Hernández de Boncalo, Spanish chronicler of the Indies, was the first European to bring tobacco seeds to the Old World in 1559 following orders of King Philip II of Spain. These seeds were planted in the outskirts of Toledo, more specifically in an area known as "Los Cigarrales" named after the continuous plagues of cicadas (cigarras in Spanish). Before the development of the lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled. Small quantities were smoked at a time, using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru or smoking newly invented waterpipes such as the bong or the hookah (see thuốc lào for a modern continuance of this practice). Tobacco became so popular that the English colony of Jamestown used it as currency and began exporting it as a cash crop; tobacco is often credited as being the export that saved Virginia from ruin.[12] The alleged benefits of tobacco also account for its considerable success. The astronomer Thomas Harriot, who accompanied Sir Richard Grenville on his 1585 expedition to Roanoke Island, explains that the plant "openeth all the pores and passages of the body" so that the natives’ "bodies are notably preserved in health, and know not many grievous diseases, wherewithall we in England are often times afflicted." [13] Tobacco smoking, chewing, and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by 1700.[14][15] Tobacco has been a major cash crop in Cuba and in other parts of the Caribbean since the 18th century. Cuban cigars are world-famous.[16] In the late 19th century, cigarettes became popular. James Bonsack created a machine that automated cigarette production. This increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the health revelations of the late-20th century.[17][18] ContemporarySee also: Tobacco control and Tobacco in the United StatesFollowing the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century, tobacco became condemned as a health hazard, and eventually became encompassed as a cause for cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. In the United States, this led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, which settled the lawsuit in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products. In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1. This strain of tobacco contained an unusually high amount of nicotine, nearly doubling its content from 3.2-3.5% to 6.5%. In the 1990s, this prompted the Food and Drug Administration to use this strain as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.[citation needed] In 2003, in response to growth of tobacco use in developing countries, the World Health Organization[19] successfully rallied 168 countries to sign the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The convention is designed to push for effective legislation and its enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco. This led to the development of tobacco cessation products. Biology This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)NicotianaMain article: NicotianaSee also: List of tobacco diseases Nicotine is the compound responsible for the addictive nature of tobacco use. Tobacco (Nicotiana rustica) flower, leaves, and budsMany species of tobacco are in the genus of herbs Nicotiana. It is part of the nightshade family (Solanaceae) indigenous to North and South America, Australia, south west Africa, and the South Pacific.[20] Most nightshades contain varying amounts of nicotine, a powerful neurotoxin to insects. However, tobaccos tend to contain a much higher concentration of nicotine than the others. Unlike many other Solanaceae species, they do not contain tropane alkaloids, which are often poisonous to humans and other animals. Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids (varying between species) to deter most herbivores,[21] a number of such animals have evolved the ability to feed on Nicotiana species without being harmed. Nonetheless, tobacco is unpalatable to many species due to its other attributes. For example, although the cabbage looper is a generalist pest, tobacco's gummosis and trichomes can harm early larvae survival.[22] As a result, some tobacco plants (chiefly N. glauca) have become established as invasive weeds in some places. TypesMain article: Types of tobaccoThe types of tobacco include: Aromatic fire-cured is cured by smoke from open fires. In the United States, it is grown in northern middle Tennessee, central Kentucky, and Virginia. Fire-cured tobacco grown in Kentucky and Tennessee is used in some chewing tobaccos, moist snuff, some cigarettes, and as a condiment in pipe tobacco blends. Another fire-cured tobacco is Latakia, which is produced from oriental varieties of N. tabacum. The leaves are cured and smoked over smoldering fires of local hardwoods and aromatic shrubs in Cyprus and Syria.Brightleaf tobacco is commonly known as "Virginia tobacco", often regardless of the state where it is planted. Prior to the American Civil War, most tobacco grown in the US was fire-cured dark-leaf. Sometime after the War of 1812, demand for a milder, lighter, more aromatic tobacco arose. Ohio, Pennsylvania and Maryland all innovated with milder varieties of the tobacco plant. Farmers discovered that Bright leaf tobacco needs thin, starved soil, and those who could not grow other crops found that they could grow tobacco. Confederate soldiers traded it with each other and Union soldiers, and developed quite a taste for it. At the end of the war, the soldiers went home and a national market had developed for the local crop.Burley tobacco is an air-cured tobacco used primarily for cigarette production. In the U.S., burley tobacco plants are started from pelletized seeds placed in polystyrene trays floated on a bed of fertilized water in March or April.Cavendish is more a process of curing and a method of cutting tobacco than a type. The processing and the cut are used to bring out the natural sweet taste in the tobacco. Cavendish can be produced from any tobacco type, but is usually one of, or a blend of Kentucky, Virginia, and burley, and is most commonly used for pipe tobacco and cigars.Criollo tobacco is primarily used in the making of cigars. It was, by most accounts, one of the original Cuban tobaccos that emerged around the time of Columbus.Dokha is a tobacco originally grown in Iran, mixed with leaves, bark, and herbs for smoking in a midwakh.Turkish tobacco is a sun-cured, highly aromatic, small-leafed variety (Nicotiana tabacum) grown in Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, and Macedonia. Originally grown in regions historically part of the Ottoman Empire, it is also known as "oriental". Many of the early brands of cigarettes were made mostly or entirely of Turkish tobacco; today, its main use is in blends of pipe and especially cigarette tobacco (a typical American cigarette is a blend of bright Virginia, burley, and Turkish).Perique was developed in 1824 through the technique of pressure-fermentation of local tobacco by a farmer, Pierre Chenet. Considered the truffle of pipe tobaccos, it is used as a component in many blended pipe tobaccos, but is too strong to be smoked pure. At one time, the freshly moist Perique was also chewed, but none is now sold for this purpose. It is typically blended with pure Virginia to lend spice, strength, and coolness to the blend.Shade tobacco is cultivated in Connecticut and Massachusetts. Early Connecticut colonists acquired from the Native Americans the habit of smoking tobacco in pipes, and began cultivating the plant commercially, though the Puritans referred to it as the "evil weed". The Connecticut shade industry has weathered some major catastrophes, including a devastating hailstorm in 1929, and an epidemic of brown spot fungus in 2000, but is now in danger of disappearing altogether, given the increase in the value of land.White burley air-cured leaf was found to be more mild than other types of tobacco. In 1865, George Webb of Brown County, Ohio planted red burley seeds he had purchased, and found a few of the seedlings had a whitish, sickly look, which became white burley.Wild tobacco is native to the southwestern United States, Mexico, and parts of South America. Its botanical name is Nicotiana rustica.Y1 is a strain of tobacco cross-bred by Brown & Williamson in the 1970s to obtain an unusually high nicotine content. In the 1990s, the United States Food and Drug Administration used it as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.[23]Production This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)CultivationMain article: Cultivation of tobacco Tobacco plants growing in a field in Intercourse, Pennsylvania.Tobacco is cultivated similarly to other agricultural products. Seeds were at first quickly scattered onto the soil. However, young plants came under increasing attack from flea beetles (Epitrix cucumeris or E. pubescens), which caused destruction of half the tobacco crops in United States in 1876. By 1890, successful experiments were conducted that placed the plant in a frame covered by thin cotton fabric. Today, tobacco is sown in cold frames or hotbeds, as their germination is activated by light.[citation needed] In the United States, tobacco is often fertilized with the mineral apatite, which partially starves the plant of nitrogen, to produce a more desired flavor. After the plants are about 8 inches (20 cm) tall, they are transplanted into the fields. Farmers used to have to wait for rainy weather to plant. A hole is created in the tilled earth with a tobacco peg, either a curved wooden tool or deer antler. After making two holes to the right and left, the planter would move forward two feet, select plants from his/her bag, and repeat. Various mechanical tobacco planters like Bemis, New Idea Setter, and New Holland Transplanter were invented in the late 19th and 20th centuries to automate the process: making the hole, watering it, guiding the plant in — all in one motion.[24] Tobacco is cultivated annually, and can be harvested in several ways. In the oldest method still used today, the entire plant is harvested at once by cutting off the stalk at the ground with a tobacco knife. It is then speared onto sticks, four to six plants a stick and hung in a curing barn. In the 19th century, bright tobacco began to be harvested by pulling individual leaves off the stalk as they ripened. The leaves ripen from the ground upwards, so a field of tobacco harvested in this manner involves the serial harvest of a number of "primings", beginning with the volado leaves near the ground, working to the seco leaves in the middle of the plant, and finishing with the potent ligero leaves at the top. Before this, the crop must be topped when the pink flowers develop. Topping always refers to the removal of the tobacco flower before the leaves are systematically removed, and eventually, entirely harvested. As the industrial revolution took hold, harvesting wagons used to transport leaves were equipped with man-powered stringers, an apparatus that used twine to attach leaves to a pole. In modern times, large fields are harvested mechanically, although topping the flower and in some cases the plucking of immature leaves is still done by hand. Most tobacco in the U.S. is grown in North Carolina, Kentucky, and Virginia.[25] CuringMain article: Curing of tobacco Tobacco barn in Simsbury, Connecticut used for air curing of shade tobacco Sun-cured tobacco, Bastam, IranCuring and subsequent aging allow for the slow oxidation and degradation of carotenoids in tobacco leaf. This produces certain compounds in the tobacco leaves, and gives a sweet hay, tea, rose oil, or fruity aromatic flavor that contributes to the "smoothness" of the smoke. Starch is converted to sugar, which glycates protein, and is oxidized into advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), a caramelization process that also adds flavor. Inhalation of these AGEs in tobacco smoke contributes to atherosclerosis and cancer.[26] Levels of AGEs are dependent on the curing method used. Tobacco can be cured through several methods, including: Air-cured tobacco is hung in well-ventilated barns and allowed to dry over a period of four to eight weeks. Air-cured tobacco is low in sugar, which gives the tobacco smoke a light, mild flavor, and high in nicotine. Cigar and burley tobaccos are 'dark' air-cured.[27]Fire-cured tobacco is hung in large barns where fires of hardwoods are kept on continuous or intermittent low smoulder, and takes between three days and ten weeks, depending on the process and the tobacco. Fire curing produces a tobacco low in sugar and high in nicotine. Pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff are fire-cured.Flue-cured tobacco was originally strung onto tobacco sticks, which were hung from tier-poles in curing barns (Aus: kilns, also traditionally called 'oasts'). These barns have flues run from externally fed fire boxes, heat-curing the tobacco without exposing it to smoke, slowly raising the temperature over the course of the curing. The process generally takes about a week. This method produces cigarette tobacco that is high in sugar and has medium to high levels of nicotine. Most cigarettes incorporate flue-cured tobacco, which produces a milder, more inhalable smoke.Sun-cured tobacco dries uncovered in the sun. This method is used in Turkey, Greece, and other Mediterranean countries to produce oriental tobacco. Sun-cured tobacco is low in sugar and nicotine and is used in cigarettes.Some tobaccos go through a second stage of curing, known as fermenting or sweating.[28] Cavendish undergoes fermentation pressed in a casing solution containing sugar and/or flavoring.[29] Global productionTrends Tobacco production in Portuguese Timor in the 1930sProduction of tobacco leaf increased by 40% between 1971, when 4.2 million tons of leaf were produced, and 1997, when 5.9 million tons of leaf were produced.[30] According to the Food and Agriculture organization of the UN, tobacco leaf production was expected to hit 7.1 million tons by 2010. This number is a bit lower than the record-high production of 1992, when 7.5 million tons of leaf were produced.[31] The production growth was almost entirely due to increased productivity by developing nations, where production increased by 128%.[32] During that same time, production in developed countries actually decreased.[31] China's increase in tobacco production was the single biggest factor in the increase in world production. China's share of the world market increased from 17% in 1971 to 47% in 1997.[30] This growth can be partially explained by the existence of a high import tariff on foreign tobacco entering China. While this tariff has been reduced from 64% in 1999 to 10% in 2004,[33] it still has led to local, Chinese cigarettes being preferred over foreign cigarettes because of their lower cost. Major producersTop tobacco producers, 2014[34]CountryProduction (tonnes)Note China2,995,400 Brazil862,396 India720,725 United States397,535 Indonesia196,300 Pakistan129,878 Malawi126,348 Argentina119,434 Zambia112,049 Mozambique97,075 World5,755,140ANo note = official figure, F = FAO Estimate, A = Aggregate (may include official, semiofficial or estimates).Every year, about 6.7 million tons of tobacco are produced throughout the world. The top producers of tobacco are China (39.6%), India (8.3%), Brazil (7.0%) and the United States (4.6%).[35] ChinaAround the peak of global tobacco production, 20 million rural Chinese households were producing tobacco on 2.1 million hectares of land.[36] While it is the major crop for millions of Chinese farmers, growing tobacco is not as profitable as cotton or sugarcane, because the Chinese government sets the market price. While this price is guaranteed, it is lower than the natural market price, because of the lack of market risk. To further control tobacco in their borders, China founded a State Tobacco Monopoly Administration (STMA) in 1982. The STMA controls tobacco production, marketing, imports, and exports, and contributes 12% to the nation's national income.[37] As noted above, despite the income generated for the state by profits from state-owned tobacco companies and the taxes paid by companies and retailers, China's government has acted to reduce tobacco use.[38] IndiaIndia's Tobacco Board is headquartered in Guntur in the state of Andhra Pradesh.[39] India has 96,865 registered tobacco farmers[40] and many more who are not registered. In 2010, 3,120 tobacco product manufacturing facilities were operating in all of India.[41] Around 0.25% of India's cultivated land is used for tobacco production.[42] Since 1947, the Indian government has supported growth in the tobacco industry. India has seven tobacco research centers, located in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Mysore, and West Bengal houses the core research institute. BrazilIn Brazil, around 135,000 family farmers cite tobacco production as their main economic activity.[36] Tobacco has never exceeded 0.7% of the country's total cultivated area.[43] In the southern regions of Brazil, Virginia, and Amarelinho, flue-cured tobacco, as well as burley and Galpão Comum air-cured tobacco, are produced. These types of tobacco are used for cigarettes. In the northeast, darker, air- and sun-cured tobacco is grown. These types of tobacco are used for cigars, twists, and dark cigarettes.[43] Brazil's government has made attempts to reduce the production of tobacco, but has not had a successful systematic antitobacco farming initiative. Brazil's government, however, provides small loans for family farms, including those that grow tobacco, through the Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar.[44] Tobacco plantation, Pinar del Río, CubaProblems in productionChild laborMain article: Child laborThe International Labour Office reported that the most child-laborers work in agriculture, which is one of the most hazardous types of work.[45][not in citation given (See discussion.)] The tobacco industry houses some of these working children. Use of children is widespread on farms in Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malawi, and Zimbabwe.[46] While some of these children work with their families on small, family-owned farms, others work on large plantations. In late 2009, reports were released by the London-based human-rights group Plan International, claiming that child labor was common on Malawi (producer of 1.8% of the world's tobacco[30]) tobacco farms. The organization interviewed 44 teens, who worked full-time on farms during the 2007-8 growing season. The child-laborers complained of low pay and long hours, as well as physical and sexual abuse by their supervisors.[47] They also reported suffering from Green tobacco sickness, a form of nicotine poisoning. When wet leaves are handled, nicotine from the leaves gets absorbed in the skin and causes nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Children were exposed to 50-cigarettes-worth of nicotine through direct contact with tobacco leaves. This level of nicotine in children can permanently alter brain structure and function.[45][not in citation given (See discussion.)] Economy Tobacco harvesting, Viñales Valley, CubaMajor tobacco companies have encouraged global tobacco production. Philip Morris, British American Tobacco, and Japan Tobacco each own or lease tobacco-manufacturing facilities in at least 50 countries and buy crude tobacco leaf from at least 12 more countries.[48] This encouragement, along with government subsidies, has led to a glut in the tobacco market. This surplus has resulted in lower prices, which are devastating to small-scale tobacco farmers. According to the World Bank, between 1985 and 2000, the inflation-adjusted price of tobacco dropped 37%.[49] Tobacco is the most widely smuggled legal product.[50] EnvironmentTobacco production requires the use of large amounts of pesticides. Tobacco companies recommend up to 16 separate applications of pesticides just in the period between planting the seeds in greenhouses and transplanting the young plants to the field.[51] Pesticide use has been worsened by the desire to produce larger crops in less time because of the decreasing market value of tobacco. Pesticides often harm tobacco farmers because they are unaware of the health effects and the proper safety protocol for working with pesticides. These pesticides, as well as fertilizers, end up in the soil, waterways, and the food chain.[52] Coupled with child labor, pesticides pose an even greater threat. Early exposure to pesticides may increase a child's lifelong cancer risk, as well as harm his or her nervous and immune systems.[53] Tobacco crops extract nutrients (such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium) from soil, decreasing its fertility.[54] Furthermore, the wood used to cure tobacco in some places leads to deforestation. While some big tobacco producers such as China and the United States have access to petroleum, coal, and natural gas, which can be used as alternatives to wood, most developing countries still rely on wood in the curing process.[54] Brazil alone uses the wood of 60 million trees per year for curing, packaging, and rolling cigarettes.[51] In 2017 WHO released a study on the environmental effects of tobacco.[55] ResearchSeveral tobacco plants have been used as model organisms in genetics. Tobacco BY-2 cells, derived from N. tabacum cultivar 'Bright Yellow-2', are among the most important research tools in plant cytology.[56] Tobacco has played a pioneering role in callus culture research and the elucidation of the mechanism by which kinetin works, laying the groundwork for modern agricultural biotechnology. The first genetically modified plant was produced in 1982, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens to create an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant.[57] This research laid the groundwork for all genetically modified crops.[58] Genetic modificationBecause of its importance as a research tool, transgenic tobacco was the first GM crop to be tested in field trials, in the United States and France in 1986; China became the first country in the world to approve commercial planting of a GM crop in 1993, which was tobacco.[59] Field trialsMany varieties of transgenic tobacco have been intensively tested in field trials. Agronomic traits such as resistance to pathogens (viruses, particularly to the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV); fungi; bacteria and nematodes); weed management via herbicide tolerance; resistance against insect pests; resistance to drought and cold; and production of useful products such as pharmaceuticals; and use of GM plants for bioremediation, have all been tested in over 400 field trials using tobacco.[60] ProductionCurrently, only the US is producing GM tobacco.[59][60] The Chinese virus-resistant tobacco was withdrawn from the market in China in 1997.[61]:3 In the US, cigarettes made with GM tobacco with reduced nicotine content are available under the market name Quest.[60] ConsumptionFurther information: Tobacco productsTobacco is consumed in many forms and through a number of different methods. Some examples are: Beedi are thin, often flavoured cigarettes from India made of tobacco wrapped in a tendu leaf, and secured with coloured thread at one end.Chewing tobacco is the oldest way of consuming tobacco leaves. It is consumed orally, in two forms: through sweetened strands, or in a shredded form. When consuming the long, sweetened strands, the tobacco is lightly chewed and compacted into a ball. When consuming the shredded tobacco, small amounts are placed at the bottom lip, between the gum and the teeth, where it is gently compacted, thus it can often be called dipping tobacco. Both methods stimulate the salivary glands, which led to the development of the spittoon.Cigars are tightly rolled bundles of dried and fermented tobacco, which are ignited so their smoke may be drawn into the smokers' mouths.Cigarettes are a product consumed through inhalation of smoke and manufactured from cured and finely cut tobacco leaves and reconstituted tobacco, often combined with other additives, then rolled into a paper cylinder.Creamy snuff is tobacco paste, consisting of tobacco, clove oil, glycerin, spearmint, menthol, and camphor, and sold in a toothpaste tube. It is marketed mainly to women in India, and is known by the brand names Ipco (made by Asha Industries), Denobac, Tona, and Ganesh. It is locally known as mishri in some parts of Maharashtra.Dipping tobaccos are a form of smokeless tobacco. Dip is occasionally referred to as "chew", and because of this, it is commonly confused with chewing tobacco, which encompasses a wider range of products. A small clump of dip is 'pinched' out of the tin and placed between the lower or upper lip and gums. Some brands, as with snus, are portioned in small, porous pouches for less mess.Gutka is a preparation of crushed betel nut, tobacco, and sweet or savory flavorings. It is manufactured in India and exported to a few other countries. A mild stimulant, it is sold across India in small, individual-sized packets.Heat-not-burn tobacco products heat rather than burn tobacco to generate an aerosol that contains nicotine.Dokha is a middle eastern tobacco with high nicotine levels grown in parts of Oman and Hatta, which is smoked through a thin pipe called a medwakh. It is a form of tobacco which is dried up and ground and contains little to no additives excluding spices, fruits, or flowers to enhance smell and flavor.Hookah is a single- or multistemmed (often glass-based) water pipe for smoking. Hookahs were first used in India and Persia;[62] the hookah has gained immense popularity, especially in the Middle East. A hookah operates by water filtration and indirect heat. It can be used for smoking herbal fruits or moassel, a mixture of tobacco, flavouring, and honey or glycerin.Kreteks are cigarettes made with a complex blend of tobacco, cloves, and a flavoring "sauce". They were first introduced in the 1880s in Kudus, Java, to deliver the medicinal eugenol of cloves to the lungs.Roll-your-own, often called 'rollies' or 'roll-ups', are relatively popular in some European countries. These are prepared from loose tobacco, cigarette papers, and filters all bought separately. They are usually cheaper to make.A tobacco pipe typically consists of a small chamber (the bowl) for the combustion of the tobacco to be smoked and a thin stem (shank) that ends in a mouthpiece (the bit). Shredded pieces of tobacco are placed into the chamber and ignited.Snuff is a ground smokeless tobacco product, inhaled or "snuffed" through the nose. If referring specifically to the orally consumed moist snuff, see dipping tobacco.Snus is a steam-pasteurized moist powdered tobacco product that is not fermented, and induces minimal salivation. It is consumed by placing it (loose or in little pouches) against the upper gums for an extended period of time. It is somewhat similar to dipping tobacco but does not require spitting and is significantly lower in TSNAs.Tobacco edibles, often in the form of an infusion or a spice, have gained popularity in recent years.Topical tobacco paste is sometimes used as a treatment for wasp, hornet, fire ant, scorpion, and bee stings.[63] An amount equivalent to the contents of a cigarette is mashed in a cup with about a half a teaspoon of water to make a paste that is then applied to the affected area.Tobacco water is a traditional organic insecticide used in domestic gardening. Tobacco dust can be used similarly. It is produced by boiling strong tobacco in water, or by steeping the tobacco in water for a longer period. When cooled, the mixture can be applied as a spray, or 'painted' on to the leaves of garden plants, where it kills insects. Tobacco is, however, banned from use as pesticide in certified organic production by the USDA's National Organic Program.[64]ImpactSocialSmoking in public was, for a long time, reserved for men, and when done by women was sometimes associated with promiscuity; in Japan, during the Edo period, prostitutes and their clients often approached one another under the guise of offering a smoke. The same was true in 19th-century Europe.[65] Following the American Civil War, the use of tobacco, primarily in cigars, became associated with masculinity and power. Today, tobacco use is often stigmatized; this has spawned quitting associations and antismoking campaigns.[66][67] Bhutan is the only country in the world where tobacco sales are illegal.[68] Due to its propensity for causing detumescence and erectile dysfunction, some studies have described tobacco as an anaphrodisiacal substance.[69] DemographicMain article: Prevalence of tobacco consumptionResearch on tobacco use is limited mainly to smoking, which has been studied more extensively than any other form of consumption. An estimated 1.1 billion people, and up to one-third of the adult population, use tobacco in some form.[70] Smoking is more prevalent among men[71] (however, the gender gap declines with age),[72][73] the poor, and in transitional or developing countries.[74] Rates of smoking continue to rise in developing countries, but have leveled off or declined in developed countries.[75] Smoking rates in the United States have dropped by half from 1965 to 2006, falling from 42% to 20.8% in adults.[76] In the developing world, tobacco consumption is rising by 3.4% per year.[77] Harmful effects of tobacco and smokingMain article: Health effects of tobaccoSee also: List of additives in cigarettesTobacco smoking poses a risk to health due to the inhalation of poisonous chemicals in tobacco smoke such as carbon monoxide, cyanide, and carcinogens which have been proven to cause heart and lung diseases and Cancer. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tobacco is the single greatest cause of preventable death globally.[78] The WHO estimates that tobacco caused 5.4 million deaths in 2004[79] and 100 million deaths over the course of the 20th century.[80] Similarly, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describe tobacco use as "the single most important preventable risk to human health in developed countries and an important cause of premature death worldwide."[81] The harms caused by inhalation of poisonous chemicals such as carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke include diseases affecting the heart and lungs, with smoking being a major risk factor for heart attacks, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (emphysema), and cancer (particularly lung cancer, cancers of the larynx and mouth, and pancreatic cancers). Cancer is caused by inhaling carcinogenic substances present in tobacco smoke. Inhaling secondhand tobacco smoke can cause lung cancer in nonsmoking adults. In the United States, about 3,000 adults die each year due to lung cancer from secondhand smoke exposure. Heart disease caused by secondhand smoke kills around 46,000 nonsmokers every year.[82] The addictive alkaloid nicotine is a stimulant, and popularly known as the most characteristic constituent of tobacco. Nicotine is known to produce conditioned place preference, a sign of enforcement value.[83] Nicotine scores almost as highly as opioids on drug effect questionnaire liking scales, which are a rough indicator of addictive potential.[84] Users may develop tolerance and dependence.[85][86] Thousands of different substances in cigarette smoke, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (such as benzopyrene), formaldehyde, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, and phenols contribute to the harmful effects of smoking.[87] Tobacco's overall harm to user and self score as determined by a multi-criteria decision analysis was determined at 3 percent below cocaine, and 13 percent above amphetamines, ranking 6th most harmful of the 20 drugs assessed.[88] Polonium 210 is a natural contaminant of tobacco, providing additional evidence for the link between smoking and bronchial cancer.[89] It is also extremely toxic, with one microgram being enough to kill the average adult (250,000 times more toxic than hydrogen cyanide by weight).[90] Thinkers such as Noam Chomsky often describe tobacco as the second most lethal substance consumed by humans, the most lethal being sugar. This is primarily due to their long term impact on general health, the abundance in which they are consumed, and their legality which facilitates and promotes consumption.[91] Economic[icon]This section needs expansion with: discussion of the impact on the poor, taxation, and so forth. You can help by adding to it. (January 2009)Tobacco has a significant economic impact. The global tobacco market has been approximated to be US$760 billion (excluding China).[92] Statistica estimates that in the U.S. alone the tobacco industry has a market of US$121 billion[93] despite the fact the CDC reports that US smoking rates are declining steadily.[94] In the US, the decline in the number of smokers, the end of the Tobacco Transition Payment Program in 2014, and competition from growers in other countries, made tobacco farming economics more challenging.[95] "Much of the disease burden and premature mortality attributable to tobacco use disproportionately affect the poor", and of the 1.22 billion smokers, 1 billion of them live in developing or transitional economies.[74] Smoking of tobacco is practised worldwide by over one billion people. However, while smoking prevalence has declined in many developed countries, it remains high in others and is increasing among women and in developing countries. Between one-fifth and two-thirds of men in most populations smoke. Women's smoking rates vary more widely but rarely equal male rates.[96] In Indonesia, the lowest income group spends 15% of its total expenditures on tobacco. In Egypt, more than 10% of households' expenditure in low-income homes is on tobacco. The poorest 20% of households in Mexico spend 11% of their income on tobacco.[97] AdvertisingMain article: Tobacco advertisingTobacco advertising of tobacco products by the tobacco industry is through a variety of media, including sponsorship, particularly of sporting events. It is now one of the most highly regulated forms of marketing. Some or all forms of tobacco advertising are banned in many countries. CinemaThank You for SmokingThe Insider A cigar is a rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco leaves made to be smoked. They are produced in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. Since the 20th century, almost all cigars are made up of three distinct components: the filler, the binder leaf which holds the filler together, and a wrapper leaf, (which is often the best leaf used). Often the cigar will have a band printed with the cigar manufacturer's logo. These days many cigars come with 2 bands, especially Cuban Cigar bands, showing Limited Edition (Edicion Limitada) bands, with the year. Cigar tobacco is grown in significant quantities primarily in Central America and the islands of the Caribbean, including Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Panama, and Puerto Rico; it is also produced in the Eastern United States, the Mediterranean countries of Italy and Spain (in the Canary Islands), and in Indonesia and the Philippines of Southeast Asia. The origins of cigar smoking are still unknown. A Guatemalan ceramic pot dating back to the tenth century features Mayan smoking tobacco leaves tied together with a string. Regular cigar smoking is known to carry serious health risks including increased danger of various types of cancer and cardiovascular illnesses. A cigar with a semi-airtight storage tube and a double guillotine-style cutterA cigar is a rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco leaves made to be smoked. They are produced in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. Since the 20th century, almost all cigars are made up of three distinct components: the filler, the binder leaf which holds the filler together, and a wrapper leaf, (which is often the best leaf used). Often the cigar will have a band printed with the cigar manufacturer's logo. These days many cigars come with 2 bands, especially Cuban Cigar bands, showing Limited Edition (Edicion Limitada) bands, with the year. Cigar tobacco is grown in significant quantities primarily in Central America and the islands of the Caribbean, including Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Panama, and Puerto Rico; it is also produced in the Eastern United States, the Mediterranean countries of Italy and Spain (in the Canary Islands), and in Indonesia and the Philippines of Southeast Asia. The origins of cigar smoking are still unknown. A Guatemalan ceramic pot dating back to the tenth century features Mayan smoking tobacco leaves tied together with a string. Regular cigar smoking is known to carry serious health risks including increased danger of various types of cancer and cardiovascular illnesses. Contents1Etymology2History3Manufacture3.1Dominant manufacturers3.2Families in the cigar industry3.2.1Other families in the cigar industry (2015)4Marketing and distribution5Composition5.1Wrapper5.2Binder5.3Filler6Size and shape6.1Parejo6.2Figurado6.3Cigarillo6.4Little cigars7Smoking7.1Cutting7.2Lighting7.3Flavor7.4Smoke8Humidors9Accessories9.1Travel case9.2Tube9.3Holder10Health effects11Popularity11.1United States12Cuban cigars12.1United States embargo against Cuba13In popular culture13.1Celebrity Cigar Smoker of the Year Award14See also15Footnotes16Further reading17External linksEtymologyThe word cigar originally derives from the Mayan sikar ("to smoke rolled tobacco leaves" – from si'c, "tobacco"). The Spanish word, "cigarro" spans the gap between the Mayan and modern use. The English word came into general use in 1730.[1] History Indigenous tobacco pipe on display at the regional museum in San Andrés TuxtlaExplorer Christopher Columbus is generally credited[by whom?] with the introduction of tobacco to Europe. Three of Columbus's crewmen during his 1492 journey, Rodrigo de Jerez, Hector Fuentes and Luis de Torres, are said to have encountered tobacco for the first time on the island of Hispaniola, in what is present day Haiti and the Dominican Republic, when natives presented them with dry leaves that spread a peculiar fragrance.[2] Tobacco was widely diffused among all of the islands of the Caribbean and was therefore also encountered in Cuba where Columbus and his men had settled. His sailors reported that the Taínos on the island of Cuba smoked a primitive form of cigar, with twisted, dried tobacco leaves rolled in other leaves such as palm or plantain. In time, Spanish and other European sailors adopted the practice of smoking rolls of leaves, as did the Conquistadors, and smoking primitive cigars spread to Spain and Portugal and eventually France, most probably through Jean Nicot, the French ambassador to Portugal, who gave his name to nicotine. Later, tobacco use spread to Italy and, after Sir Walter Raleigh's voyages to the Americas, to Britain. Smoking became familiar throughout Europe—in pipes in Britain—by the mid-16th century. Spanish cultivation of tobacco began in earnest in 1531 on the island of Santo Domingo.[3] In 1542, tobacco started to be grown commercially in North America, when the Spaniards established the first cigar factory on the island of Cuba.[4] Tobacco was originally thought to have medicinal qualities, but there were some who considered it evil. It was denounced by Philip II of Spain and James I of England.[5] Around 1592, the Spanish galleon San Clemente brought 50 kilograms (110 lb) of tobacco seed to the Philippines over the Acapulco-Manila trade route. It was distributed among Roman Catholic missionaries, who found excellent climates and soils for growing high-quality tobacco there. The use of the cigar did not become popular until the mid-eighteenth century, and although there are not many drawings from this era, there are some reports. In Seven Years' War in the general future of the Continental Army Israel Putnam brought to New England cigar seeds from Cuba. What made cigar smoking popular after the American Revolution In the at the end of the 18th century and 19th century, cigar smoking was common, while cigarettes were still comparatively rare. In the early 20th century, Rudyard Kipling wrote his famous smoking poem, "The Betrothed." The cigar business was an important industry and factories employed many people before mechanized manufacturing of cigars became practical. Cigar workers in both Cuba and the US were active in labor strikes and disputes from early in the 19th century, and the rise of modern labor unions can be traced to the CMIU and other cigar worker unions.[6] Inside an Ybor City cigar factory c. 1920In 1869, Spanish cigar manufacturer Vicente Martinez Ybor moved his Principe de Gales (Prince of Wales) operations from the important cigar manufacturing center of Havana, Cuba to Key West, Florida to escape the turmoil of the Ten Years' War. Other manufacturers followed, and Key West became another important cigar manufacturing center. In 1885, Ybor moved again, buying land near the then-small city of Tampa, Florida and building the largest cigar factory in the world at the time[7] in the new company town of Ybor City. Friendly rival and Flor de Sánchez y Haya owner Ignacio Haya built his own factory nearby in the same year, and many other cigar manufacturers soon followed, especially after an 1886 fire that gutted much of Key West. Thousands of Cuban and Spanish tabaqueros came to the area from Key West, Cuba and New York to produce hundreds of millions of cigars annually. Local output peaked in 1929, when workers in Ybor City and West Tampa rolled over 500,000,000 "clear Havana" cigars, earning the town the nickname "Cigar Capital of the World".[8][9][10][11] In New York, cigars were made by rollers working in their own homes. It was reported that as of 1883, cigars were being manufactured in 127 apartment houses in New York, employing 1,962 families and 7,924 individuals. A state statute banning the practice, passed late that year at the urging of trade unions on the basis that the practice suppressed wages, was ruled unconstitutional less than four months later. The industry, which had relocated to Brooklyn and other places on Long Island while the law was in effect, then returned to New York.[12] As of 1905, there were 80,000 cigar-making operations in the United States, most of them small, family-operated shops where cigars were rolled and sold immediately.[8] While most cigars are now made by machine, some, as a matter of prestige and quality, are still rolled by hand---especially in Central America and Cuba, as well as in small chinchales in sizable cities in the United States.[8] Boxes of hand-rolled cigars bear the phrase totalmente a mano (totally by hand) or hecho a mano (made by hand). These premium hand-rolled cigars are significantly different from the machine-made cigars sold in packs at drugstores and gas stations. Since the 1990s there has been severe contention between producers and aficionados of premium handmade cigars and cigarette manufacturing companies that create machine-made cigars.[citation needed] Manufacture An aged tobacco leaf being examined Cigar makers in Puerto Rico, circa 1942Tobacco leaves are harvested and aged using a curing process that combines heat and shade to reduce sugar and water content without causing the bigger leaves to rot. This takes between 25 and 45 days, depending upon climatic conditions and the nature of sheds or barns used to store harvested tobacco. Curing varies by type of tobacco and desired leaf color. A slow fermentation follows, where temperature and humidity are controlled to enhance flavor, aroma, and burning characteristics while forestalling rot or disintegration. The leaf will continue to be baled, inspected, un-baled, re-inspected, and baled again during the aging cycle. When it has matured to manufacturer's specifications it is sorted for appearance and overall quality and used as filler or wrapper accordingly. During this process, leaves are continually moistened to prevent damage. Quality cigars are still handmade.[13] An experienced cigar-roller can produce hundreds of very good, nearly identical, cigars per day. The rollers keep the tobacco moist — especially the wrapper — and use specially designed crescent-shaped knives, called chavetas, to form the filler and wrapper leaves quickly and accurately.[13] Once rolled, the cigars are stored in wooden forms as they dry, in which their uncapped ends are cut to a uniform size.[13] From this stage, the cigar is a complete product that can be "laid down" and aged for decades if kept as close to 21 °C (70 °F), and 70% relative humidity. Once purchased, proper storage is typically in a specialized wooden humidor. Vendor rolling cigars at the Eyipantla Falls in San Andrés Tuxtla, MexicoSome cigars, especially premium brands, use different varieties of tobacco for the filler and the wrapper. Long filler cigars are a far higher quality of cigar, using long leaves throughout. These cigars also use a third variety of tobacco leaf, called a "binder", between the filler and the outer wrapper. This permits the makers to use more delicate and attractive leaves as a wrapper. These high-quality cigars almost always blend varieties of tobacco. Even Cuban long-filler cigars will combine tobaccos from different parts of the island to incorporate several different flavors. In low-grade and machine-made cigars, chopped tobacco leaves are used for the filler, and long leaves or a type of "paper" made from tobacco pulp is used for the wrapper.[13] They alter the burning characteristics of the cigar vis-a-vis handmade cigars. Historically, a lector or reader was always employed to entertain cigar factory workers. This practice became obsolete once audiobooks for portable music players became available, but it is still practiced in some Cuban factories. The name for the Montecristo cigar brand may have arisen from this practice. Dominant manufacturers Cigars (top to bottom) by H. Upmann, Montecristo, Macanudo, Romeo y JulietaTwo firms dominate the cigar industry. Altadis produces cigars in the United States, the Dominican Republic, and Honduras, and has a 50% stake in Corporación Habanos in Cuba. It also makes cigarettes. Scandinavian Tobacco Group produces cigars in the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Nicaragua, Indonesia, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark and the United States; it also makes pipe tobacco and fine cut tobacco. The Group includes General Cigar Co.[14] The town of Tamboril in Santiago, Dominican Republic is considered by many as today's "Cigar Capital of the World" housing more cigar factories and rollers than anywhere else in the world.[15] According to magazine Cigar Aficionado, 44% of the world's most traded cigars come from the Dominican Republic, the world’s largest producer of cigars[16], especially from the fertile lands of the Cibao capital, where 90% of the factories are located[17] The area has also been the largest supplier of cigars to the United States in the last decades[18] Cigar Exports by Country (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic ComplexityFamilies in the cigar industryNearly all modern premium cigar makers are members of long-established cigar families, or purport to be. The art and skill of hand-making premium cigars has been passed from generation to generation; families are often shown in many cigar advertisements and packaging.[19] A Tuscan cigarIn 1992, Cigar Aficionado magazine created the "Cigar Hall of Fame" and recognized the following six individuals:[20] Leon Family, La Aurora, Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic (Oldest Family and first cigar company in the world est. 1903)Edgar M. Cullman, Chairman, General Cigar Company, New York, United StatesZino Davidoff, Founder, Davidoff et Cie., Geneva, SwitzerlandCarlos Fuente, Sr., Chairman, Tabacalera A. Fuente y Cia., Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican RepublicFrank Llaneza, Chairman, Villazon & Co., Tampa, Florida, United StatesStanford J. Newman, Chairman, J.C. Newman Cigar Company, Tampa, Florida, United StatesÁngel Oliva, Sr. (founder); Oliva Tobacco Co., Tampa, Florida, United StatesOther families in the cigar industry (2015)Manuel Quesada (MATASA Current CEO) Fonseca, Casa Magna, Quesada cigars, Dominican RepublicDon José "Pepín" Garcia, Chairman, El Rey de Los Habanos, Miami, Florida, United StatesAray Family – Daniel Aray Jr, Grandson of Founder (1952) Jose Aray, ACC Cigars, Guayaquil Ecuador, San Francisco, CA, Miami Florida, Macau SAR, Shanghai China.EPC – Ernesto Perez-Carillo, Founder EPC Cigar Company (2009), Miami, Florida, United StatesNestor Miranda – Founder, Miami Cigar Company (1989) Miami, FL, United StatesBlanco family- Jose "Jochy" Blanco, son of Founder (1936) Jose Arnaldo Blanco Polanco, Tabacalera La Palma, Santiago, Dominican RepublicHermann Dietrich Upmann creator of the H.Upmann brand 1844 in CubaMarketing and distribution Cigar cases from the Te Amo and Sihuapan manufacturers in MexicoPure tobacco, hand rolled cigars are marketed via advertisements, product placement in movies and other media, sporting events, cigar-friendly magazines such as Cigar Aficionado, and cigar dinners. Since handmade cigars are a premium product with a hefty price, advertisements often include depictions of affluence, sensual imagery, and explicit or implied celebrity endorsement.[21] Cigar Aficionado, launched in 1992, presents cigars as symbols of a successful lifestyle, and is a major conduit of advertisements that do not conform to the tobacco industry's voluntary advertisement restrictions since 1965, such as a restriction not to associate smoking with glamour. The magazine also presents pro-smoking arguments at length, and argues that cigars are safer than cigarettes, since they do not have the thousands of chemical additives that cigarette manufactures add to the cutting floor scraps of tobacco used as cigarette filler. The publication also presents arguments that risks are a part of daily life and that (contrary to the evidence discussed in Health effects) cigar smoking has health benefits, that moderation eliminates most or all health risk, and that cigar smokers live to old age, that health research is flawed, and that several health-research results support claims of safety.[22] Like its competitor Smoke, Cigar Aficionado differs from marketing vehicles used for other tobacco products in that it makes cigars the focus of the entire magazine, creating a symbiosis between product and lifestyle.[23] In the U.S., cigars have historically been exempt from many of the marketing regulations that govern cigarettes. For example, the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1970 exempted cigars from its advertising ban,[24] and cigar ads, unlike cigarette ads, need not mention health risks.[21] As of 2007, cigars were taxed far less than cigarettes, so much so that in many U.S. states, a pack of little cigars cost less than half as much as a pack of cigarettes.[24] It is illegal for minors to purchase cigars and other tobacco products in the U.S., but laws are unevenly enforced: a 2000 study found that three-quarters of web cigar sites allowed minors to purchase them.[25] In 2009, the US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act provided by the Food and Drug Administration (regulatory authority over the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco and smokeless tobacco. In 2016, the deeming rule extended the FDA's authority to additional tobacco products including cigars.[26] The objective of this act is to reduce the impact of tobacco on public health by preventing Americans from starting to use tobacco products, encourage current users to quit, and decrease the harms of tobacco product use. Inexpensive, non-pure cigars are sold in convenience stores, gas stations, grocery stores, and pharmacies, mostly as self-serve items. Premium cigars are sold in tobacconists, cigar bars, and other specialized establishments.[27] Some cigar stores are part of chains, which have varied in size: in the U.S., United Cigar Stores was one of only three outstanding examples of national chains in the early 1920s, the others being A&P and Woolworth's.[28] Non-traditional outlets for cigars include hotel shops, restaurants, vending machines[27] and the Internet.[25] CompositionCigar Wrapper Color Chart.Wrapper color chartCigars are composed of three types of tobacco leaves, whose variations determine smoking and flavor characteristics: WrapperA cigar's outermost layer, or wrapper (Spanish: capa), is the most expensive component of a cigar.[29] The wrapper determines much of the cigar's character and flavor, and as such its color is often used to describe the cigar as a whole. Wrappers are frequently grown underneath huge canopies made of gauze so as to diffuse direct sunlight and are fermented separately from other rougher cigar components, with a view to the production of a thinly-veined, smooth, supple leaf.[29] Wrapper tobacco produced without the gauze canopies under which "shade grown" leaf is grown, generally more coarse in texture and stronger in flavor, is commonly known as "sun grown." A number of different countries are used for the production of wrapper tobacco, including Cuba, Ecuador, Indonesia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Brazil, Mexico, Cameroon, and the United States.[29] While dozens of minor wrapper shades have been touted by manufacturers, the seven most common classifications are as follows,[30] ranging from lightest to darkest: ColorDescriptionCandela ("Double Claro")very light, slightly greenish. Achieved by picking leaves before maturity and drying quickly, the color coming from retained green chlorophyll.Clarovery light tan or yellowishColorado Claromedium brownColorado ("Rosado")reddish-brownColorado Madurodarker brownMadurovery dark brownOscuro ("Double Maduro")blackSome manufacturers use an alternate designation: DesignationAcronymDescriptionAmerican Market SelectionAMSsynonymous with Candela ("Double Claro")English Market SelectionEMSany natural colored wrapper which is darker than Candela but lighter than Maduro[31]Spanish Market SelectionSMSone of the two darkest colors, Maduro or OscuroIn general, dark wrappers add a touch of sweetness, while light ones add a hint of dryness to the taste. BinderBeneath the wrapper is a small bunch of "filler" leaves bound together inside of a leaf called a "binder" (Spanish: capote). Binder leaf is typically the sun-saturated leaf from the top part of a tobacco plant and is selected for its elasticity and durability in the rolling process.[29] Unlike wrapper leaf, which must be uniform in appearance and smooth in texture, binder leaf may show evidence of physical blemishes or lack uniform coloration. Binder leaf is generally considerably thicker and more hardy than the wrapper leaf surrounding it. Filler Long-leaf filler inside a hand-rolled cigar (slightly crumbled during cutting)The bulk of a cigar is "filler" — a bound bunch of tobacco leaves. These leaves are folded by hand to allow air passageways down the length of the cigar, through which smoke is drawn after the cigar is lit.[29] A cigar rolled with insufficient air passage is referred to by a smoker as "too tight"; one with excessive airflow creating an excessively fast, hot burn is regarded as "too loose." Considerable skill and dexterity on the part of the cigar roller is needed to avoid these opposing pitfalls — a primary factor in the superiority of hand-rolled cigars over their machine-made counterparts.[29] By blending various varieties of filler tobacco, cigar makers create distinctive strength, odor, and flavor profiles for their various branded products. In general, fatter cigars hold more filler leaves, allowing a greater potential for the creation of complex flavors. In addition to the variety of tobacco employed, the country of origin can be one important determinant of taste, with different growing environments producing distinctive flavors. Short or chopped fillerThe fermentation and aging process adds to this variety, as does the particular part of the tobacco plant harvested, with bottom leaves (Spanish: volado) having a mild flavor and burning easily, middle leaves (Spanish: seco) having a somewhat stronger flavor, with potent and spicy ligero leaves taken from the sun-drenched top of the plant. When used, ligero is always folded into the middle of the filler bunch due to its slow-burning characteristics. If full leaves are used as filler, a cigar is said to be composed of "long filler." Cigars made from smaller bits of leaf, including many machine-made cigars, are said to be made of "short filler." World's largest cigar at the Tobacco and Matchstick Museum in Skansen, Stockholm, SwedenIf a cigar is completely constructed (filler, binder, and wrapper) of tobacco produced in only one country, it is referred to in the cigar industry as a "puro," from the Spanish word for "pure." Size and shapeSee also: Factory nameCigars are commonly categorized by their size and shape, which together are known as the vitola. The size of a cigar is measured by two dimensions: its ring gauge (its diameter in sixty-fourths of an inch) and its length (in inches). In Cuba, next to Havana, there is a display of the world's longest rolled cigars. ParejoThe most common shape is the parejo, sometimes referred to as simply "coronas", which have traditionally been the benchmark against which all other cigar formats are measured. They have a cylindrical body, straight sides, one end open, and a round tobacco-leaf "cap" on the other end that must be sliced off, have a V-shaped notch made with a special cutter or punched through before smoking. Parejos are designated by the following terms: TermLength in inchesWidth in 64ths of an inchMetric lengthMetric widthEtymologyCigarillo~ 3½~ 21~ 8 cm~ 8 mmSizes may vary significantly. According to CigarCyclopedia, cigarillo is shorter than 6 inches (15 cm) and thinner than 29 ring gauge (11.5 mm).[32]Rothschild4½4811 cm19 mmafter the Rothschild familyRobolo4½6011 cm24 mmRobusto4⅞5012 cm20 mmSmall Panatella53313 cm13 mmAscot4½2411 cm13 mmPetit Corona5⅛4213 cm17 mmCarlota5⅝3514 cm14 mmCorona5½4214 cm17 mmCorona Gorda5⅝4614 cm18 mmPanatella63815 cm15 mmToro65015 cm20 mmCorona Grande6⅛4216 cm17 mmLonsdale6½4217 cm17 mmnamed for Hugh Cecil Lowther, 5th Earl of LonsdaleChurchill747–5018 cm19–20 mmnamed for Sir Winston ChurchillDouble Corona7⅝4919 cm19 mmPresidente85020 cm20 mmGran Corona9¼4723 cm19 mmDouble Toro/Gordo66015 cm24 mmThese dimensions are, at best, idealized. Actual dimensions can vary considerably. Figurado Cigar shapesIrregularly shaped cigars are known as figurados and are often priced higher than generally similar sized parejos of a like combination of tobaccos because they are more difficult to make. Historically, especially during the 19th century, figurados were the most popular shapes, but by the 1930s they had fallen out of fashion and all but disappeared. They have, however, recently received a small resurgence in popularity, and currently many manufacturers produce figurados alongside the simpler parejos. The Cuban cigar brand Cuaba only has figurados in their range. Figurados include the following: FiguradoDescriptionTorpedoLike a parejo except that the cap is pointedCherootLike a parejo except that there is no cap, i.e. both ends are openPyramidHas a broad foot and evenly narrows to a pointed capPerfectoNarrow at both ends and bulged in the middlePresidente/Diademashaped like a parejo but considered a figurado because of its enormous size and occasional closed foot akin to a perfectoCulebrasThree long, pointed cigars braided togetherChiselIs much like the Torpedo, but instead of coming to a rounded point, comes to a flatter, broader edge, much like an actual chisel. This shape was patented and can only be found in the La Flor Dominicana (LFD) brandIn practice, the terms Torpedo and Pyramid are often used interchangeably, even among very knowledgeable cigar smokers. Min Ron Nee, the Hong Kong-based cigar expert whose work An Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Post-Revolution Havana Cigars is generally considered to be the definitive work on cigars and cigar terms,[citation needed] defines Torpedo as "cigar slang". Nee regards the majority usage of torpedoes as pyramids by another name as acceptable.[citation needed] Arturo Fuente, a large cigar manufacturer based in the Dominican Republic, has also manufactured figurados in exotic shapes ranging from chili peppers to baseball bats and American footballs. They are highly collectible and extremely expensive, when available to the public.[citation needed] Cigarillo Cohiba Mini and Dannemann Moods cigarillosA cigarillo is a machine-made cigar that is shorter and narrower than a traditional cigar but larger than little cigars,[33] filtered cigars, and cigarettes, thus similar in size and composition to small panatela sized cigars, cheroots, and traditional blunts. Cigarillos are usually not filtered, although some have plastic or wood tips, and unlike other cigars, some are inhaled when used.[34] Cigarillos are sold in varying quantities: singles, two-packs, three-packs, and five-packs. Cigarillos are very inexpensive: in the United States, usually sold for less than a dollar. Sometimes they are informally called small cigars, mini cigars, or club cigars. Some famous cigar brands, such as Cohiba or Davidoff, also make cigarillos---Cohiba Mini and Davidoff Club Cigarillos, for example. And there are purely cigarillo brands, such as Café Crème, Dannemann Moods, Mehari's, Al Capone, and Swisher Sweets. Cigarillos are often used in making marijuana cigars,.[35][36] Little cigarsLittle cigars (sometimes called small cigars or miniatures in the UK) differ greatly from regular cigars.[33] They weigh less than cigars and cigarillos,[37] but, more importantly, they resemble cigarettes in size, shape, packaging, and filters.[38] Sales of little cigars quadrupled in the U.S. from 1971 to 1973 in response to the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act, which banned the broadcast of cigarette advertisements and required stronger health warnings on cigarette packs. Cigars were exempt from the ban, and perhaps more importantly, were taxed at a far lower rate. Little cigars are sometimes called "cigarettes in disguise", and unsuccessful attempts have been made to reclassify them as cigarettes. In the United States, sales of little cigars reached an all-time high in 2006, fueled in great part by favorable taxation.[24] In some states, however, little cigars have successfully been taxed at the rate of cigarettes, such as Illinois,[39] as well as multiple other states. This has caused yet another loophole, in which manufacturers classify their products as "filtered cigars" instead to avoid the higher tax rate. Yet, many continue to argue that there is in fact a distinction between little cigars and filtered cigars. Little cigars offer a similar draw and overall feel to cigarettes, but with aged and fermented tobaccos, while filtered cigars are said to be more closely related to traditional cigars, and are not meant to be inhaled.[40] Research shows that people do inhale smoke from little cigars.[41] Smoking A double guillotine-style cutter, used for cutting the tip of a cigar, next a hand-rolled H. Upmann Coronas Major cigar. The "Made in Cuba" label (see "Cuban cigars" section) is visible on the lower tube.Most machine-made cigars have pre-formed holes in one end or a wood or plastic tip for drawing in the smoke. Hand-rolled cigars require the blunt end to be pierced before lighting. The usual way to smoke a cigar is to not inhale but to draw the smoke into the mouth. Some smokers inhale the smoke into the lungs, particularly with little cigars. A smoker may swirl the smoke around in the mouth before exhaling it, and may exhale part of the smoke through the nose in order to smell the cigar better as well as to taste it. CuttingMain article: Cigar cutterAlthough a handful of cigars are cut or twirled on both ends, the vast majority come with one straight cut end and the other capped with one or more small pieces of wrapper adhered with either a natural tobacco paste or with a mixture of flour and water. The cap end of a cigar must be cut or pierced for the cigar smoke to be drawn properly. Some cigar manufacturers purposely place different types of tobacco from one end to the other to give the cigar smokers a variety of tastes, body, and strength from start to finish. The basic types of cigar cutter include: Guillotine (straight cut)Punch cutV-cut (a.k.a. notch cut, cat's eye, wedge cut, English cut)LightingThe "head" of the cigar is usually the end closest to the cigar band, the other the "foot". The band identifies the type of the cigar and may be removed or left on. The smoker cuts or pierces the cap before lighting. The cigar should be rotated during lighting to achieve an even burn while slowly drawn with gentle puffs. If a match is used it should be allowed to burn past its head before being put to the cigar, to avoid imparting unwelcome flavors or chemicals to the smoke. Many specialized gas and fluid lighters are made for lighting cigars. The tip of the cigar should minimally touch any flame, with special care used with torch lighters to avoid charring the tobacco leaves. A third and most traditional way to light a cigar is to use a splinter of cedar known as a spill, which is lit separately before using.[42] The thin cedar wrapping from cigars with one may be used. FlavorEach brand and type of cigar has its own unique taste. Whether a cigar is mild, medium, or full bodied does not correlate with quality. Among the factors which contribute to the scent and flavor of cigar smoke are tobacco types and qualities used for filler, binder, and wrapper, age and aging method, humidity, production techniques (handmade vs. machine-made), and added flavors. Among wrappers, darker tend to produce a sweetness, while lighter usually have a "drier", more neutral taste.[13] Evaluating the flavor of cigars is in some respects similar to wine-tasting. Journals are available for recording personal ratings, description of flavors observed, sizes, brands, etc. Some words used to describe cigar flavor and texture include; spicy, peppery (red or black), sweet, harsh, burnt, green, earthy, woody, cocoa, chestnut, roasted, aged, nutty, creamy, cedar, oak, chewy, fruity, and leathery. SmokeSmoke is produced by incomplete combustion of tobacco during which at least three kinds of chemical reactions occur: pyrolysis breaks down organic molecules into simpler ones, pyrosynthesis recombines these newly formed fragments into chemicals not originally present, and distillation moves compounds such as nicotine from the tobacco into the smoke. For every gram of tobacco smoked, a cigar emits about 120–140 mg of carbon dioxide, 40–60 mg of carbon monoxide, 3–4 mg of isoprene, 1 mg each of hydrogen cyanide and acetaldehyde, and smaller quantities of a large spectrum of volatile N-nitrosamines and volatile organic compounds, with the detailed composition unknown.[43] The most odorous chemicals in cigar smoke are pyridines. Along with pyrazines, they are also the most odorous chemicals in cigar smokers' breath. These substances are noticeable even at extremely low concentrations of a few parts per billion. During smoking, it is not known whether these chemicals are generated by splitting the chemical bonds of nicotine or by Maillard reaction between amino acids and sugars in the tobacco.[44] Cigar smoke is more alkaline than cigarette smoke, and is absorbed more readily by the mucous membrane of the mouth, making it easier for the smoker to absorb nicotine without having to inhale.[45] HumidorsMain article: HumidorThe level of humidity in which cigars are kept has a significant effect on their taste and evenness of burn. It is believed that a cigar's flavor best evolves when stored at a relative humidity similar to where the tobacco is grown, and in most cases, the cigars rolled, of approximately 65–70% and a temperature of 18 °C (64 °F).[46] Dry cigars become fragile and burn faster while damp cigars burn unevenly and take on a heavy acidic flavor. Humidors are used to maintain an even humidity level. Without one, cigars will lose moisture and acquire the ambient humidity within 2 to 3 days.[47] A humidor's interior lining is typically constructed with three types of wood: Spanish cedar, American (or Canadian) red cedar, and Honduran mahogany. Other materials used for making or lining a humidor are Acrylic, Tin ( mainly seen in older early humidors) and Copper, used widely in the 1920s-1950s. Most humidors come with a plastic or metal case with a sponge that works as the humidifier, although most recent versions are of polymer acryl. The latter are filled only with distilled water; the former may use a solution of propylene glycol and distilled water. Humidifiers, and the cigars within them, may become contaminated with bacteria if they are kept too moist. New technologies employing plastic beads or gels which stabilize humidity are becoming widely available.[48] A new humidor requires seasoning, after which a constant humidity must be maintained. The thicker the cedar lining the better. Many humidors contain an analog or digital hygrometer to aid in maintaining a desired humidity level. There are three types of analog: metal spring, natural hair, and synthetic hair .[49] Accessories A cigar case made of crocodile skin with sterling silver appointments bearing a Birmingham hallmark for 1904A wide variety of cigar accessories are available, in varying qualities. Travel caseTravel cases protect cigars from direct exposure to the elements and minimize potential damage. Most come in expandable or sturdy leather, although metal leather and plastic lined cases are found. Some feature cardboard or metal tubes for additional protection. TubeCigar tubes are used to carry small numbers of cigars, typically one or five, referred to by their number of "fingers". They are usually made from stainless steel, and used for short durations. For longer, a built in humidifier and hygrometer is used. Holder A cigar holderA cigar holder, also known as a cigar stand, is used to keep a cigar out of an ashtray. The term may refer to a protective small tube in which the cigar is held while smoked, typically used by women.[citation needed] Health effectsFurther information: Health effects of tobaccoLike other forms of tobacco use, cigar smoking poses a significant health risk depending on dosage: risks are greater for those who smoke more cigars, smoke them longer, or inhale more.[50] A review of 22 studies found that cigar smoking is associated with lung cancer, oral cancer, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, laryngeal cancer, coronary heart disease (CHD), and aortic aneurysm. Among cigar smokers who reported that they did not inhale, relative mortality (likelihood of death) risk was still highly elevated for oral, esophageal, and laryngeal cancers.[51] Danger of mortality increases proportionally to use, with smokers of one to two cigars per day showing a 2% increase in death rate, compared to non-smokers.[52] The precise statistical health risks to those who smoke less than daily is not established.[53] The depth of inhalation of cigar smoke into the lungs appears to be an important determinant of lung cancer risk: When cigar smokers don't inhale or smoke few cigars per day, the risks are only slightly above those of never smokers. Risks of lung cancer increase with increasing inhalation and with increasing number of cigars smoked per day, but the effect of inhalation is more powerful than that for number of cigars per day. When 5 or more cigars are smoked per day and there is moderate inhalation, the lung cancer risks of cigar smoking approximate those of a one pack per day cigarette smoker. As the tobacco smoke exposure of the lung in cigar smokers increases to approximate the frequency of smoking and depth of inhalation found in cigarette smokers, the difference in lung cancer risks produced by these two behaviors disappears.[54] Cigar smoking can lead to nicotine addiction and cigarette usage.[55][56] For those who inhale and smoke several cigars a day, the health risk is similar to cigarette smokers.[56] Cigar smoking can also increase the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.[50][56] So-called "little cigars" are commonly inhaled and likely pose the same health risks as cigarettes, while premium cigars are not commonly inhaled or habitually used.[57] PopularityThe prevalence of cigar smoking varies depending on location, historical period, and population surveyed. Estimates vary somewhat depending on the survey method. The U.S. is the top consuming country by sales by a considerable margin, followed by Germany and the United Kingdom. The U.S. and western Europe account for about 75% of cigar sales worldwide.[14] United StatesFrom 2000 to 2012, consumption of cigars more than doubled in the United States, from slightly over 6.1 billion in 2000 to more than 13.7 billion in 2012.[58] Cigar use is most common among young people. In the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey data,[59] the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that 12.6% of high school students had smoked at least one cigar in the past 30 days. After cigarettes, cigars were the second most commonly used tobacco product in youths and the most commonly used tobacco product among African American high school students. From the CDC’s national Adult Tobacco Survey for 2009-2015, data suggest that prevalence among adults was highest among 18–24 years (15.9%) followed by 25–44 years old (7.2%).[60] From the same survey, prevalence among men (10.4%) was significantly higher than women (3.1%) and likewise among LGBT (12.2%) and heterosexual (6.5%) respondents. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2015) indicated that 12.5 million American (over age 12) smoked a cigar product in the past month and over 24 million smoked a cigar product in the past year. As reported in other surveys, use was more common among most often among men than women and more prevalent among African- Americans and Native Americans than among white Americans. Cuban cigars Tobacco plantation, Pinar del Río, CubaCuban cigars are rolled from domestic tobacco leaves. The filler, binder, and wrapper may come from different areas of the island. All cigar production in Cuba is controlled by the Cuban government, and different Cuban factories may produce the same brand. Torcedores — men (rarely, a woman) who by occupation hand-roll cigars, from Spanish torcer, to twist or plait — are highly respected in Cuban society and culture, and travel worldwide displaying the art of hand-rolling cigars.[61] Cuba produces both handmade and machine-made cigars. Habanos SA and Cubatabaco between them do all the work relating to Cuban cigars, including manufacture, quality control, promotion and distribution, and export. All boxes and labels are marked Hecho en Cuba (Spanish for Made in Cuba). Machine-bunched cigars finished by hand add Hecho a mano (handmade), while fully handmade cigars say Totalmente a mano (entirely handmade). Because of the perceived status and higher price of Cuban cigars, and the difficulty of identifying the provenance of an unlabeled cigar, counterfeits are not unusual.[62] Cigars remain one of Cuba's leading exports. A total of 77 million cigars were exported in 1991, 67 million in 1992, and 57 million in 1993, the decline attributed to a loss of much of the wrapper crop in a hurricane.[63] In 2016 Cuba exported $445 million worth of cigars worldwide.[64] United States embargo against CubaMain article: United States embargo against Cuba According to Marxist revolutionary leader Che Guevara, "A smoke in times of rest is a great companion to the solitary soldier"[65]On 7 February 1962, United States President John F. Kennedy imposed a trade embargo on Cuba to sanction Fidel Castro's communist government. According to Pierre Salinger, then Kennedy's press secretary, the president ordered him on the evening of 6 February to obtain 1,200 H. Upmann brand Petit Upmann Cuban cigars. Upon Salinger's arrival with the cigars the following morning, Kennedy signed the executive order which put the embargo into effect.[66] Richard Goodwin, a White House assistant to Presidents Kennedy and Johnson, revealed in a 2000 New York Times article that in early 1962, JFK told him, "We tried to exempt cigars, but the cigar manufacturers in Tampa objected."[67] The embargo prohibited US residents from purchasing Cuban cigars, and American cigar manufacturers from importing Cuban tobacco. As a result, Cuba was deprived of its major customer for tobacco, and American cigar manufacturers had to find an alternate sources of tobacco or go out of business.[68] Upon the expropriation of private property in Cuba, many former Cuban cigar manufacturers moved to other countries (primarily the Dominican Republic) to continue production.[69] The Dominican Republic's production of tobacco grew significantly as a result.[70] After reallocation, most Cuban manufacturers continued to use their known company name, seed, and harvesting technique while Cubatabaco, Cuba's state tobacco monopoly after the Revolution, independently continued production of cigars using the former private company names.[69] As a result, cigar name brands like Romeo y Julieta, La Gloria Cubana, Montecristo, and H. Upmann among others, exist in both Cuba and the Dominican Republic.[71] Honduras and Nicaragua are also mass manufacturers of cigars. Some Cuban refugees make cigars in the US and advertise them as "Cuban" cigars, using the argument that the cigars are made by Cubans.[72] Advertisement aimed at American tourists in Niagara Falls, Ontario, minutes away from the US–Canada borderWhile Cuban cigars are smuggled into the US and sold at high prices, counterfeiting is rife. It has been said that 95% of Cuban cigars sold in the US are counterfeit.[73] Although Cuban cigars cannot legally be commercially imported into the US, the advent of the Internet has made it much easier for people in the US to purchase cigars online from other countries, especially when shipped without bands. Cuban cigars are openly advertised in some European tourist regions, catering to the American market, even though it is illegal to advertise tobacco in most European regions.[74] The loosening of the embargo in January 2015 included a provision that allowed the importation into the US of up to $100 worth of alcohol or tobacco per traveler, allowing legal importation for the first time since the ban.[75] In October 2016, the Federal government liberalized restrictions on the number of cigars that an American can bring back to the U.S. for personal use without having to pay customs taxes.[76] This allowed the import of up to 100 cigars (four standard boxes) or $800 worth without paying duty once every 31 days. Quantities above that are subject to taxation.[77] Cigars may be consumed personally or gifted, but not sold by an individual, either a private sale to another individual or to a cigar store or distributor. Commercial sale and possession of Cuban cigars remains prohibited.[77] In popular cultureIn a reversal of recent decades' portrayal, beginning in the 1980s and 1990s major U.S. print media began to feature cigars favorably. Cigar use was generally framed as a lucrative business or trendy habit, rather than as a health risk.[78] It is an item whose highest quality is still something most can afford, at least for special occasions. Historic portrayals of the wealthy often caricatured cigar smokers as wearing top hats and tailcoats. Cigars are often given out and smoked to celebrate special occasions, notably the birth of a child,[79][80][81] but also graduations, promotions, and other totems of success. The expression "close but no cigar" comes from the practice of giving cigars as prizes in fairground games involving good aim.[citation needed] Cigars in Australia since 2012 come with a plain packaged band to further curb Australia's smoking population. The band is a drab brown (Pantone 448C) and is applied over the top of the original cigar band.[citation needed] Celebrity Cigar Smoker of the Year AwardIn 2013, the UK magazine The Spectator inaugurated an International Celebrity Cigar Smoker of the Year Award. Since 2015 the event has been sponsored by Snow Queen Vodka.[citation needed] The first winner, in 2013, was Simon le Bon. In 2014, Arnold Schwarzenegger became the second.[82] Jonathan Ross won in 2015 and Kelsey Grammer in 2016.[83] See alsoiconCulture portalBox-pressedCabinet selectionCatadorCigar etiquetteCigar makers strike of 1877List of cigar brandsSmoking jacket Condition: Used, Condition: Very good overall. See description., date of Creation: 1870, Type of Advertising: Trade Card, Modified Item: No, Country/Region of Manufacture: United States, Brand: Railroad Boy

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