2 Fine Marvel Xmen(X-Men)Comics:kitty Pryde And Wolverine(1984)Issues#2 3:bg^brd

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Seller: telemosaic (2,480) 99.2%, Location: Canton, Massachusetts, Ships to: US & many other countries, Item: 232588542177 ☆2 FINE MARVEL XMEN(X-MEN)COMIC BOOKS:KITTY PRYDE AND WOLVERINE(1984)ISSUES#2 and 3: BAGGED & BOARDED ☆ Comics are in fine condition and come bagged and boarded! Kitty Pryde and Wolverine (1984) #2 and #3 ISSUE #2: "Terror!" Written by Chris Claremont. Art by Al Milgrom. Kitty Pryde has followed her father to Japan thinking that he may need her help, but what she finds will shake her to very core. Now, she's on the run, all alone, and in way over her head. And things go from bad to worse when the demon ninja sorcerer Ogun takes a liking to her. Meanwhile, after receiving Kitty's frantic phone call (see last issue), Wolverine arrives in the Land of the Rising Sun to find his missing teammate. But will he be too late to save her from a fate worse than death? 32 pages, FC. NOTE: 1st appearance of Ogun (as a ninja). Cover price $0.75. ISSUE #3: "Death!" Guest-Starring Yukio. Written by Chris Claremont. Art by Al Milgrom. Wolverine has arrived in Japan to help Kitty Pryde. But he is suddenly besieged by a deadly ninja that wants him dead. And this mysterious new adversary just may possess the skill to do it. 32 pages, FC. Cover price $0.75. SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Kitty PrydeFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor the rapper previously known as Kitty Pryde, see Kitty (rapper),Kitty PrydeKitty Pryde Astonishing X-Men Vol 3 16,pngKitty Pryde using her phasing ability in Astonishing X-Men vol, 3, #16 (October 2006); art by John CassadayPublication informationPublisherMarvel ComicsFirst appearanceUncanny X-Men #129 (January 1980)Created byChris ClaremontJohn ByrneIn-story informationFull nameKatherine Anne PrydeSpeciesHuman MutantTeam affiliationsAll-New X-MenX-MenExcaliburS,H,I,E,L,D,Guardians of the GalaxyNotable aliasesArielSpriteShadowcatst*r-LordAbilitiesPhasingKatherine Anne "Kitty" Pryde is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, commonly in association with the X-Men, The character first appeared in Uncanny X-Men #129 (January 1980) and was co-created by writer-artist John Byrne and Chris Claremont,A mutant, Pryde possesses a "phasing" ability that allows her, as well as objects or people she is in contact with, to become intangible,[1] This power also disrupts any electrical field she passes through, and lets her simulate levitation,The youngest person to join the X-Men, she was first portrayed as a "kid sister" to many older members of the X-Men, filling the role of literary foil to the more established characters, During this time she occasionally uses the codenames Sprite and Ariel, undergoing many costume changes for each codename until settling for her trademark black and gold costume, During the miniseries Kitty Pryde and Wolverine she is renamed Shadowcat, the alias she would be most associated with, and transitions to the more mature depiction of her subsequent appearances, She was one of the main cast of characters depicted in the original Excalibur title, After joining the Guardians of the Galaxy, she assumes her fiancé's superhero identity as the st*r-Lord,In the X-Men film series, Kitty was portrayed by young actresses in cameos: Sumela Kay in X-Men (2000) and Katie Stuart in X2 (2003), Ellen Page portrayed the character in X-Men: The Last Stand (2006) and X-Men: Days of Future Past (2014), She is ranked #47 in IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes,Contents [hide] 1Publication history2Fictional character biography2,1Joining the X-Men2,2Ogun2,3Morlock Massacre2,4Excalibur2,5Back to the X-Men2,6Breakworld2,7Return2,8Regenesis2,9All-New X-Men2,10The Black Vortex2,11Guardians of the Galaxy2,12Leading the X-Men3Relationships3,1Colossus3,2st*r-Lord4Powers and abilities5Other versions6In other media6,1Television6,2Motion comics6,3Film6,4Video games6,5Novels7Reception8References9External linksPublication history[edit]Kitty Pryde was introduced into the X-Men title as the result of an editorial dictate that the book was supposed to depict a school for mutants,[2] Uncanny X-Men artist John Byrne named Kitty Pryde after a classmate he met in art school, Alberta College of Art and Design in Calgary in 1973, He had told Pryde he liked her name and asked for permission to use it, promising to name his first original comics character after her,[3] Byrne drew the character to slightly resemble an adolescent Sigourney Weaver,[4]The fictional Kitty Pryde first appeared in Uncanny X-Men #129 (January 1980), by writer Chris Claremont and artist Byrne, as a highly intelligent 13-year-old girl, Claremont said several elements of the character's personality were derived from those of X-Men editor Louise Simonson's daughter, Julie,[5] Claremont and Byrne made the new character a full-fledged X-Man in issue #139, where she was codenamed "Sprite", She was the main character in issues #141–142, the "Days of Future Past" storyline, where she is possessed by her older self, whose consciousness time travels to the past to prevent a mass extermination of mutants, The six-issue miniseries Kitty Pryde and Wolverine (1984–1985), written by Claremont, is a coming-of-age storyline in which she matures from a girl to a young woman, adopting the new name "Shadowcat",In the late '80s, she joined the British-based super team, Excalibur, where she remained for roughly ten years before coming back to the X-Men, In the early 2000s, she disappeared from the spotlight after semi-retiring from superhero work, She was featured in the 2002 mini-series Mekanix and came back to the main X-Men books in 2004 under the pen of Joss Whedon in Astonishing X-Men, She remained a part of the X-Men books until 2008 when she left again for roughly 2 years, After coming back, she was featured in Jason Aaron's Wolverine and the X-Men and Brian Michael Bendis' All-New X-Men books,In early 2015, she joined the Guardians of the Galaxy, After the Secret Wars event, she adopted her new alias, st*r-Lord (first believed to be st*r-Lady),[6]Shadowcat's popularity had a profound effect on the real-life Kitty Pryde: the latter became so overwhelmed by attention from Shadowcat fans, she abbreviated her name to K,D, Pryde to avoid association with her fictional counterpart, She has since stated she has mixed feelings about her fame, saying she values Byrne's comics for their entertainment and artistic value, but wishes more people would appreciate her as more than just Shadowcat's namesake,[3]Fictional character biography[edit] This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards, No cleanup reason has been specified, Please help improve this section if you can, (October 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Katherine Anne "Kitty" Pryde was born in Deerfield, Illinois, to Carmen and Theresa Pryde, Of Jewish descent, her paternal grandfather, Samuel Prydeman, was held in a Nazi concentration camp during World War II, Kitty st*rted to have headaches at age thirteen, signaling the emergence of her mutant powers, She was approached by both the X-Men's Charles Xavier and the Hellfire Club's White Queen, Emma Frost, both of whom hoped to recruit her for their respective causes, Kitty was unnerved by Frost, observing that the White Queen looked at her as if she were "something good to eat," She got along better with Xavier and the three X-Men who escorted him, quickly becoming friends with Ororo Munroe, Ororo told Kitty who she really was and about the X-Men, which made the teenager even more enthusiastic about attending Xavier's school,Their conversation was cut short when they (along with Wolverine and Colossus) were attacked by armored mercenaries in the employ of Frost and the Hellfire Club, The X-Men defeated their assailants, but were subdued by the White Queen's telepathic powers immediately after, In the confusion, Kitty was separated from, and not captured along with, the X-Men,[7] She managed to contact Cyclops, Phoenix, and Nightcrawler,[8] With the help of Dazzler and Pryde, those X-Men rescued their teammates from the Hellfire Club,[9]The White Queen appeared to perish in the battle, which meant she was no longer competing with Xavier for the approval of Kitty's parents, Kitty's parents had not heard from her in more than a day, because during that time she was first being pursued by the Hellfire Club's men and then working with the X-Men to save their friends, All they knew was Kitty had left with Xavier's "students" to get a soda, there had been reports that the soda shop had been blown up, and Kitty had been missing since, Therefore, they were angry at Xavier when he finally returned with Kitty in tow, At first, it seemed like there was no chance of Kitty being allowed to attend the school and join the X-Men, Phoenix then used her considerable telepathic power to erase the memories of Kitty's parents and plant false ones, resulting in a complete shift in their attitude towards Xavier, Kitty was then allowed to enroll at Xavier's school with her parents' blessing,[9] becoming the youngest member of the team,Joining the X-Men[edit]Kitty joined the X-Men,[10] and assumed the costumed identity of Sprite,[11] Early in her career as an X-Man, Kitty's adult self from an alternate future took possession of her body in the present to help X-Men thwart the assassination of Senator Robert Kelly by the second Brotherhood of Evil Mutants,[12] Kitty then singlehandedly defeated a N'Garai demon,[13] Kitty also briefly attended the White Queen's Massachusetts Academy when her parents became convinced that she needed to be with students of her own age, but following a failed attempt to subdue the X-Men, Frost revoked Kitty's admission,[14]During her teen years, Kitty fostered a number of close relationships with others at the school and in the X-Men, She developed a crush on Colossus and became close friends with his little sister Illyana Rasputin, Initially uneasy around Nightcrawler and other mutants with physical deformities, Kitty finally overcame her fears and became close friends with him, Kitty also befriended Lockheed, a highly intelligent alien resembling a dragon,[15] who followed her home after a mission in outer space,[16] Lockheed is extremely loyal to Kitty, and the two of them share a psychic bond, Wolverine became something of a mentor to Kitty despite his usually gruff personality, Storm came to view Kitty as the daughter she never had,Though Xavier has threatened to reassign Kitty to the New Mutants, a team of younger mutants he established in the absence of the X-Men, ever since the X-Men returned from outer space,[17] she never ended up joining the group, who she derisively calls the "X-Babies",[18] Kitty was later abducted by the Morlocks and nearly forced to wed Caliban,[19] She was then abducted by the White Queen, but rescued by the New Mutants,[20]During this time, Kitty began to date Colossus, although this did not last long, Colossus developed feelings for an alien woman named Zsaji whom he met on the Beyonder's planet in the first Secret Wars, Colossus' feelings toward Zsaji were primarily a side effect of her own unique healing abilities, which she had used on him after he became injured, Regardless, Colossus' feelings were real and he returned to Earth consumed with grief after Zsaji's death, He admitted to Kitty that he loved Zsaji, which hurt her deeply and ended the budding romantic relationship,[21] Kitty had made good friends with a local boy from Salem Central named Doug Ramsey around this time, but her feelings for him never went as deep as his for her, and they never actually dated, though they remained close, even more so after Doug's status as a mutant was revealed and he joined the New Mutants under the codename Cypher, They remained friends until his death some time later,[22]Ogun[edit]During the 1984-1985 Kitty Pryde and Wolverine miniseries, Kitty is possessed by a demon, the ninja Ogun, Ogun psychically bestows upon Kitty a virtual lifetime of martial arts training, Kitty was brainwashed by Ogun into becoming a ninja assassin, and was sent to attack Wolverine, Kitty is able to resist Ogun's influence with Wolverine's help, and the two form a strong teacher/student bond, which helps them in vanquishing Ogun, Kitty returns to the X-Men, no longer the innocent girl they once knew, and officially adopts the codename Shadowcat,[23]Morlock Massacre[edit]While trying to save Rogue, Kitty was badly injured by Harpoon's energy spear during the Mutant Massacre story arc, in the massacre of the Morlocks, with the result that she lost control of her power and was stuck in an intangible state and could not regain her solidity,[24] She was rushed to Muir Island along with other surviving casualties of the Massacre to be tended to by Moira MacTaggert, MacTaggert was able to keep Kitty's condition from deteriorating to the point where she completely lost physical substance and ceased to exist, but was not able to do any more to help her,[25]At this time, Kitty's natural state was to be intangible, Where she once had to make a conscious effort to phase, she could now only maintain her solidity through an act of conscious will, The X-Men went to Reed Richards, Mister Fantastic of the Fantastic Four, for aid, but Richards initially refused because he was not sure he would be able to help,[26]Having nowhere else to go, the X-Men turned to Richards' enemy Doctor Doom, This created a moral dilemma for both the X-Men and the Fantastic Four, and both teams fought each other because the Fantastic Four were trying to stop the treatment while the X-Men were determined to save Kitty's life, In the end, both the personal crisis of the Fantastic Four and the life of Shadowcat were saved after Franklin Richards, with the help of Lockheed, brought both teams to their senses,[27] Kitty has since recovered from this state and now has full control over her power again,[volume & issue needed]Excalibur[edit]Among the others injured and brought to Muir Isle were Colossus and Nightcrawler, although Colossus left the United Kingdom shortly after being released from MacTaggert's care to join the rest of the X-Men on their mission to battle the Adversary,[28] The X-Men sacrificed their lives to defeat the Adversary, the battle and their sacrifice was televised and broadcast across the world,[volume & issue needed] The X-Men were resurrected later, unknown to the world at large, but chose to keep a low profile and perpetuate the belief that they were still dead,[volume & issue needed] This strategy was enforced to more effectively fight their enemies, This meant avoiding contact with friends and family, including Kitty, Thinking the X-Men were dead, Kitty and Nightcrawler joined Rachel Summers, Captain Britain, and Meggan to form the Britain-based team Excalibur,[29] For a brief time, Kitty studied at St, Searle's School for Girls in Britain,[30] During her time with Excalibur, Kitty developed a crush on Professor Alistaire Stuart which went unreciprocated since Alistaire was attracted to Rachel,[31] Later, she was romantically involved with former Black Air agent Pete Wisdom,[volume & issue needed] At some point Kitty was recruited by the international law enforcement agency S,H,I,E,L,D, to repair the computer system of their flying headquarters, Kitty discovered the problem was due to Ogun's spirit having infiltrated the computer system, and with the aid of Wolverine, she managed to purge Ogun's presence,[32] During this time, Kitty was attracted to a S,H,I,E,L,D, intern her own age, and this made her begin to doubt her relationship with Wisdom,[volume & issue needed] Soon after, she broke off their relationship,[volume & issue needed]Back to the X-Men[edit] Kitty Pryde on the cover of X-Treme X-Men #26 (July 2003); art by Salvador Larroca This section does not cite any sources, Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)After Excalibur's dissolution, Shadowcat, Nightcrawler, and Colossus return to the X-Men, While returning, they faced a group of imposters following Cerebro, in the guise of Professor X, While tracking Mystique, she stumbles onto prophetic diaries that belonged to Irene Adler, a precognitive, During the six-month gap, Kitty visited Genosha, Whatever she experienced there is unknown (although presumably connected to her father, living on Genosha at the time), but it had a profound effect on her, She cut her hair and began to act rebelliously, also using one of Wolverine's bone claws broken off during battle as a weapon, Kitty remained with the X-Men for a while before leaving after the apparent death of Colossus, Trying to give herself a normal life, she attended the University of Chicago, During this time, her father was killed when Cassandra Nova’s Sentinels destroyed Genosha, Kitty later finds a recording of his death due to exploring footage of the attack, She is also kidnapped by William Stryker, but the X-Treme X-Men team helped her escape, and she assisted them on several missions,At the st*rt of Joss Whedon's run on Astonishing X-Men, Kitty once again rejoins the X-Men, despite having extreme reservations about working with the former White Queen, given their history, This was the primary reason why Frost herself wanted Kitty on the team, as a sort of "safety" should Frost ever revert to type, Frost reasoned that the person who trusted her least would be most likely to spot such behavior, On one of the team's first missions, Shadowcat discovered Colossus was alive, After some initial awkwardness, Kitty and Colossus resumed dating,Kitty Pryde appeared alongside Colossus in the "Blinded by the Light" arc in X-Men, They are the two X-Men left to look after the students while the rest of the X-Men leave for Mystique's home in Mississippi to check up on Rogue, during which they are ambushed by the Marauders, Kitty and Colossus, meanwhile, attempt to protect the students from a faction of the Marauders led by Exodus, It is revealed over the course of the story that Kitty, worried of the Destiny Diaries' safety, devised a plan with Cyclops and Emma Frost to hide them and have Emma wipe the location from her mind, The location could only be revealed by a code word spoken to Kitty, The arc concludes with a battle between Iceman and Cannonball against the Marauders for the diaries, during which they are destroyed by Gambit,In the "Torn" arc, the latest incarnation of the Hellfire Club begin an assault on Xavier's School, Kitty fulfilled the role that Emma Frost envisioned, personally taking down Frost and imprisoning her, only to fall under a telepathic delusion created by Hellfire member Perfection, who claimed to be the true, unreformed Emma Frost, Under this delusion, Kitty was made to believe that she and Colossus had conceived a child, which was later taken away by the X-Men because its potential mutant abilities were supposedly dangerous, Kitty reacts in the delusion by attempting to rescue the child from a near-inescapable "box" in the depths of the school, unaware that in reality she is freeing an alien entity, Stuff, who contains the trapped consciousness of Cassandra Nova, the apparent ringleader of this new Hellfire Club, A newly awakened Cyclops revealed that the new Hellfire Club, including Perfection and Nova, are actually mental projections created by a piece of Cassandra Nova's consciousness; which became lodged in Emma's mind during the X-Men's last confrontation with her, playing on her survivor's guilt over the Genoshan massacre, and utilizing Emma's telepathy to both confound the X-Men and orchestrate her (Nova's) escape from the Stuff body, As Cyclops killed the mental projections, Emma tried to force Kitty to kill her to get rid of Nova, Undeterred, Cassandra Nova switched her focus to attempt to transfer her mind to Hisako Ichiki, It appears that Nova did not succeed, as the team was transported to S,W,O,R,D,'s air station en route to Ord's Breakworld for the "Unstoppable" arc that concludes Whedon's run on Astonishing X-Men,Breakworld[edit]As the team prepares to end the confrontation with the Breakworld leader, the team splits up—with Kitty on the team appointed to stop the missile pointed at Earth, Kitty phases into the missile to disrupt its circuitry noting that it is composed of the same material as the rest of Breakworld, a material that’s difficult and exhausting for her to phase through, After phasing for a mile into the missile, Kitty finds the center only to discover it empty, The missile is fired, causing Kitty to pass out inside of it as Beast discovers too late that due to its shape, trajectory, and lack of internal circuitry, the Breakworld's weapon is not a missile, but a bullet, As the bullet hurtles toward Earth, Kitty lies unconscious within it,[33]As the situation becomes increasingly dire, Emma establishes mental contact with Kitty, reassuring her that she will come out of this fine, though it eventually becomes clear to both that the situation will be grim, Kitty and Emma come to an understanding and reconciliation, Emma stating that she never wanted something like this to happen to her, Kitty then phases the bullet through Earth, but is trapped within, At the end of Giant-Size Astonishing X-Men, Scott Summers mentions that Doctor Strange, Reed Richards, and some "top men" tried to save her, but believe she has fused to the bullet, as it continues to hurtle through space, Whether she is alive or dead is unknown, though the X-Men consider her lost to them,[33]As a result of these events Kitty does not appear in the X-Men crossover event X-Men: Messiah Complex, since this takes place after the events of Giant-Size Astonishing X-Men, She is briefly mentioned in the aftermath of the Messiah Complex, by Colossus, Nightcrawler, and Wolverine, as the three of them discuss "losing her,"[34]To cope with Kitty's loss, Colossus takes down a group of Russian criminals dealing in human trafficking, and gets a tattoo of the name 'Katya' on his chest,[35] Emma begins having a recurring dream in which she hears a voice whom she believes is Kitty's trying to reach out to her,[36]It was later confirmed by Abigail Brand that Kitty Pryde was still alive within the bullet, but because the bullet's design would harden as time went on, it would become increasingly difficult to break the bullet open,[37]Return[edit]After the X-Men move to the island of Utopia, Magneto arrives on the island professing his desire to join and support the X-Men in their effort to unite the world's remaining mutants, The X-Men reluctantly let him stay, remaining wary of him despite his efforts to gain their trust,[38] In a final bid to gain their trust, Magneto focuses his powers, attempting to divert the interstellar path of the metal bullet Kitty is trapped in and bring her home to Earth, Meanwhile, inside the bullet, Kitty is revealed to still be alive,[39] Unbeknownst to the others, Magneto had encountered the bullet earlier while attempting to regain his powers with the High Evolutionary and surmised that Kitty was inside, Despite this and the High Evolutionary's apparent ability to retrieve the bullet and Kitty, Magneto chose to focus on regaining his powers, secretly keeping tabs on the bullet until his decision to draw it back to Earth, During her time trapped inside the bullet, Kitty keeps herself and the bullet phased to avoid collisions with any inhabited objects in its path,Magneto brings Kitty Pryde safely down to Earth, with the help of Doctor Strange, by cracking the bullet in two and levitating Kitty to the ground, When she and Colossus try to touch, it is revealed that she is trapped in her intangible form, unable to speak, and the X-Men place her in a protective chamber similar to the one used for her following the events of the Mutant Massacre,[40][41] How Kitty survived her time in the bullet is unclear to the X-Men's science team, where the X-Men discover that all her bodily functions halted,[41] An analysis by Kavita Rao hypothesizes that Kitty created an intense muscle memory to keep herself and the bullet phased and has "forgotten" how to un-phase,[41]During a conversation with Colossus, with Emma Frost acting as the psi-conduit, Kitty picks up Emma's stray thoughts on killing the captive Sebastian Shaw, to prevent Namor from discovering she previously lied to him, While disgusted at Emma's intentions, Kitty offers a compromise, Due to her current ghost state, she is the perfect tool for making Shaw disappear,[42]In a storyline in Uncanny X-Men, the Breakworlders make their way to Earth, During the conflict between the Breakworlder Kr'uun and the X-Men, Kitty is slain and resurrected by Kr'uun's mate in an alien ritual, which results in her powers returning to normal,[43]Regenesis[edit]Shortly thereafter, Kitty breaks up with Colossus,[44] and decides to return with Wolverine to Westchester to open the Jean Grey School for Higher Learning,[45] In Wolverine and the X-Men #4, she appears to be suddenly pregnant,[46] but the pregnancy was revealed to be a Brood infestation, and it was swiftly dealt with by a team of X-Men,[volume & issue needed] Since returning to Westchester, Kitty has shared several kisses with Iceman,[volume & issue needed] During the events of Avengers vs, X-Men, Kitty does not take a side, but instead decides to stay at the school to work with the students,[volume & issue needed] Once Bobby returned from working with the X-Men after realizing that the Phoenix had corrupted them, he and Kitty finally decide to go on a date,[47]All-New X-Men[edit]After Beast brings the original five X-Men into the future to stop Cyclops in the present,[48] Kitty volunteers to take responsibility for the temporally relocated X-Men while they work to undo this dark future,[49] This soon puts her at odds with the rest of her team as they believed the original five should go back to their own time in order to prevent any damage to the space-time continuity, Eventually, this leads Kitty to take the decision of abandoning the school with the time-displaced X-Men and join Cyclops's X-Men at the New Xavier School,[50] During the first few weeks at the New Xavier School, Jean Grey is abducted by the Shiar Empire to stand trial for her future self's crimes, Kitty and the time-displaced X-Men team up with the Guardians of the Galaxy and succeed in rescuing Jean from the Shiar, At the conclusion of the storyline, Kitty begins a long-distance, flirtatious relationship with st*rlord, Peter Quill,[51]The Black Vortex[edit]In the following weeks, Kitty's relationship with Peter Quill evolves more and more as they developed stronger feelings for each other everyday, At one point, Quill gets captured during one of their dates and she has no option but to go to his rescue, despite her fear of space as a result of her being trapped on the giant space bullet,[52] After rescuing Peter, she decides to stay in space with him, Then, Kitty convinces Peter to steal a powerful artifact called the Black Vortex from his father J'son, Soon, they find themselves being chased by J'son's assassination squad, the Slaughter Lords, In despair, they request the aid of the X-Men and the Guardians of the Galaxy to protect the Vortex, After a few of their own friends can't resist the temptation and submit to the Vortex, betray the team, and escape with the artifact; the team splits and Kitty stays in Spartax to help an orphanage, She is encased in amber after Thane (who was allied with J'son) freezes the whole planet along with the people inside it; but thanks to her phasing powers, she manages to get out of the amber, Then the Brood attacks Spartax, planning to use every encased person to lay eggs and create an army of Brood to st*rt invading other planets and conquering them, Kitty feels the only way to stop them is by submitting to the Vortex herself as she's the only one who can resist the cosmic corruption, She reluctantly submits and becomes a being of unlimited power, After being reminded of the love between her and Peter Quill, she goes back and phases all the amber that encased Spartax, along with the Broods trying to infect the people, and sends them all to another dimension, Kitty doesn't give up the cosmic power but admits to Peter that she is afraid of it, Peter promises her that he will never abandon her no matter how much she changes, Then, Peter kneels and proposes marriage to Kitty, She, with tears in her eyes, accepts,[53] Later when st*r Lord is declared Emperor of Spartax she is told she will become the first lady of Spartax,[54]Guardians of the Galaxy[edit]Kitty takes on the mantle of st*r Lord and joins the Guardians of the Galaxy in Peter Quill's place so he can take on his royal duties,[55] When Hala the Accuser massacres Spartax in an attempt to make Quill pay for J'Son's actions against her people, she initially easily lays waste to the capitol and overpowers the Guardians, After the Guardians regroup and formulate a strategy to defeat her, Kitty manages to partially phase Hala into the ground so the rest of the Guardians can knock her out and separate her from her weapon,[56] After Quill loses his title as king he and Kitty end up on a mission with the rest of the Guardians on a concentration camp prison planet owned by the Badoon after Gamora gave them information on it so they can free Angela, Once there, Kitty has a personal reaction upon seeing the prisoners and makes it her mission to liberate everyone there and defeat the captors, as it reminds her of Jewish concentration camps, After Quill gets captured and sentenced to death in an arena battle, Kitty finds and kills one of the Badoon leaders by phasing his heart out of his body,[57] When Captain Marvel summons the Guardians to Earth to help her address Tony st*rk, Kitty learns that Thanos is a prisoner on earth and tries to convince Quill to tell Gamora, When fighting st*rts Kitty woefully realizes that some of her former students are on Tony st*rk's side instead of fighting with Captain Marvel, During the battle the Guardians' ship was destroyed, effectively stranding them on Earth,[58] After helping the Guardians stop Thanos from leading an invasion from the Negative Zone the Guardians are given a new ship, however Kitty decides to stay on earth and ends her time with the Guardians and Quill,[59]Leading the X-Men[edit] Kitty on the cover of X-Men Gold vol, 1 #3 by Marc Guggenheim, art by Ardian Syaf,Upon returning to Earth, Kitty hopes to finally regain a semblance of a normal life but ends up approached by Storm, who informs Kitty of everything the X-Men have gone through while Kitty was away, Storm announces to Kitty that she intends to step down as leader of the X-Men due to the guilt that she feels for leading the X-Men to war and offers Kitty her position, After touring X-Haven and seeing how much things have changed and how much things need to change for the better, Kitty agrees to lead the X-Men as long as Storm remains on the team, Her next act is to relocate the mansion from Limbo to Central Park, New York so the X-Men can refocus on being part of the world instead of fearing it under the belief that if the X-Men truly are to be seen as heroes, then they need to actually live in the world that they are trying to save instead of constantly worrying about their own survival,[60]Under Kitty's new leadership, the X-Men go through some small changes in order to shed their past history and make new names for themselves, such as convincing Rachel Summers to change her code-name to Prestige and renaming the mansion as The Xavier Institute for Mutant Education and Outreach, Kitty learns first hand how hard it is to balance leading the X-Men as well as managing the mansion when there are many political factors trying to deliberately get in the way of the X-Men, She also begins to have awkward one-on-one moments with Colossus; they try to remain friends, but given their long history their interactions swiftly become complicated, Kitty's first case as field leader of the X-Men sees her and her team taking on a new Brotherhood of Evil Mutants, After discovering that an outspoken anti-mutant politician brainwashed this new Brotherhood to work for her to publicly discredit mutants, Kitty threatened to expose her if she continued exploiting mutants for her own personal gain,[61]Relationships[edit]Colossus[edit]Kitty expressed a romantic love interest in Colossus early into her time with the X-Men, This did not sit well with Marvel Comics' editor-in-chief at the time, Jim Shooter, who disapproved of the suggestion that a nineteen-year-old boy was sleeping with a fourteen-year-old girl,[62] Kitty had in fact directly propositioned Colossus in Uncanny X-Men #165, when they were both infected with Brood embryos and seemingly doomed to die: Kitty, aware of the taboo of their romantic relationship, made the plea that if she were older it would not be a problem, but Colossus refused—offering only a passionate kiss—saying "However, little one, you are not older", This did not stop the relationship from continuing, as the two were spotted once again passionately kissing in an apparent formalization of their romantic involvement,[63]Shooter finally brought an end to the relationship in his Secret Wars limited series, in which Colossus developed romantic feelings for an alien woman named Zsaji while on the Beyonder's Battleworld,[64] Zsaji was a healer whose abilities had a side effect of infatuation, For Colossus, this infatuation furthered his doubts of his feelings for Kitty due to his jealousy of her friendship with Doug Ramsey and led to a passionate, albeit brief romantic relationship with Zsaji, After Zsaji's death, Colossus found he no longer had romantic feelings for Kitty, and upon returning to Earth, he would break up with her,[65]The two remained friends, though much cooler around each other until they were separated when Colossus was among the X-Men killed in Dallas during Fall of the Mutants, While a member of Excalibur, Kitty exploited her closeness with Colossus after he joined the Acolytes by luring him to Muir Island under the pretense of wanting to join him on Avalon, In reality, it was a ruse to allow Professor X to heal a head injury Colossus had suffered which they assumed had led to his defection, Kitty disliked betraying him, but went along with the ruse and was forgiven for her part in it,[66]After the fall of Avalon, Colossus came to Muir Island looking for Kitty, and upon finding her with Pete Wisdom, he attacked and seriously injured Wisdom, The two talked about their past and decided to become close friends, with Colossus carefully watching over her romantic relationship with Wisdom, After Kitty and Wisdom's romantic relationship ends, she rejoins the X-Men with Colossus and Nightcrawler, and the two remain close, Kitty was not among the team when Colossus sacrificed himself to cure the Legacy Virus, but she returned to claim his ashes and spread them in his homeland,[67]After Colossus' resurrection in Joss Whedon's run on Astonishing X-Men, the two discuss their feelings and renew their strong, close romantic relationship,[68]During the events of Fear Itself after numerous failed attempts to stop the Norse-powered Juggernaut Cain Marko, Shadowcat goes on a mission with Magik and Colossus to Cytorrak's dimension to try to convince him to stop using Cain Marko as the avatar of the Juggernaut, Cytorrak accepts on the terms that one of them become his new avatar, which Colossus takes to prevent his sister from carrying the burden,[44] After Colossus repels Cain's attack, Kitty dissolves her romance with Colossus, saying she needs a man who will live for her, not die for her,[44]Since the universe reboot following Secret Wars, Colossus has joined the Pryde-lead X-Men Gold team, Upon realizing continued shared attraction, Colossus stated his belief that they should only proceed if it was toward the direction of marriage, In response Kitty conceded that she needed time to think about it,[69]After defeating Omega Red in Russia, Kitty surprises Piotr with a kiss, telling him she had said she needed time—and she had taken it, The issue ends with the two walking off together alone while Piotr tells Kitty that his home is wherever she is, their relationship renewed,[70]st*r-Lord[edit]In comics, Kitty and st*r-Lord developed strong romantic feelings for each other, After the Avengers vs, X-Men and the relaunch called Marvel Now that followed, writer Brian Michael Bendis became the main architect behind both the X-Men and Guardians of the Galaxy franchises, His plan to join Kitty and st*r-Lord would not st*rt until a year later when he created a crossover event called "The Trial of Jean Grey" where he revisited the event of the original Phoenix Saga with the original X-Men team who he had brought into the present, Initially after breaking up with Colossus, Kitty Pryde tries to date Bobby Drake,[71] until leaving the Jean Grey School for Cyclops's school after the Battle of the Atom,[72] At the end of the crossover, st*r-Lord gives Kitty an intergalactic phone she can use to call him whenever she wants to, Kitty, who was already interested in still seeing him, accepted the gift and kissed him on the cheek,[73]Soon, st*r-Lord's new ongoing series writer Sam Humphries took interest in the relationship and decided to expand it in his own book, He, along with Bendis and editor Mike Marts (who edited both franchises), would st*rt developing the relationship for a year before doing another crossover event that would be completely focused on them,In st*r-Lord's book, Peter and Kitty kept using the intergalactic phone to call each other and have what they called "holo-dates", The many problems in Peter Quill's life st*rted interfering and soon he was captured by a new villain who had put a bounty on Peter's head called Mr, Knife, Kitty, who had been witness of Peter being abducted while they were on a date, rushed to Avengers Tower and stole one of Tony st*rk's jets to go into space and save Peter,[74] She infiltrated Mr, Knife's base (now revealed to be J'son, st*r-Lord's father) and rescued Peter after hitting Knife in the face, Then they kissed for the first time,[75]After spending an afternoon in Ma Savage's orphanage (one of the many orphanages Peter founded), Kitty decides to leave Earth and stay in space with Peter, and they consummate their relationship on Peter's ship,[76]Soon the crisis of the Black Vortex st*rted, Kitty and Peter st*rted fighting a lot because of the Vortex; Kitty wants nothing to do with it while Peter wants to have cosmic powers to help him deal with the horrors of outer space, However, at one point, Peter has the complete freedom to submit to the Vortex and gain cosmic powers, He asks the Vortex to show him how his future would be if he submitted and he sees himself saving Spartax and gaining the approval of his father, but then he'd go back to being a womanizer and Kitty would leave him, Peter completely rejects the Vortex after this, wanting to be a better man for Kitty because he really loved her, Kitty appreciates this but submits to the Vortex anyway in order to save the galaxy,[77]After saving all from the horrors of the Black Vortex, everyone is offered a chance to give up their new acquired cosmic powers but Kitty doesn't take it, She uses these new powers to walk in space with Peter, There, she confesses to him how afraid she was of these new powers and their influence, Peter assures her that no matter what happens or how much she changes, he would be by her side to the end because he knew the real Kitty would always be there, To prove how sure he is about his love for her, he proposes, Kitty st*rts crying and accepts, They dance together in space while their friends watch,[78]Powers and abilities[edit] Physics professor James Kakalios has attempted to use quantum mechanics to explain Kitty Pryde's "phasing" power, He has described it as an ability to control her own "macroscopic quantum wave function, increasing her tunneling probability to near 100 percent at will,"[1]Kitty is a mutant with the ability to pass through solid matter by passing her atomic particles through the spaces between the atoms of the object through which she is moving, In this way she and the object through which she is passing can temporarily merge without interacting, and each is unharmed when Shadowcat has finished passing through the object, This process is called "phasing" or quantum tunneling and it renders her almost completely intangible to physical touch,[1] Shadowcat passes through objects at the same speed at which she is moving before she enters them, Since she is unable to breathe while inside an object, she can only continuously phase through solid objects (as when she travels underground) as long as she can hold her breath, However, contrary depictions of the duration of her phasing ability have been presented, such as when she has phased miles within an object, The use of her abilities also interferes with any electrical systems as she passes through by disrupting the flow of electrons from atom to atom, including the bio-electric systems of living bodies if she concentrates in the right way,[79] This typically causes machines to malfunction or be destroyed as she phases through them, and can induce shock and unconsciousness in living beings,Using her power began as an optional ability, but for a period (over ten years of published comics, approximately two years in-continuity) Kitty existed in a naturally "phased" state, and had to consciously choose to become solid, Kitty has returned to her original form and is normally solid and must choose to use her power,[80] While phasing, she does not physically walk on surfaces, but rather interacts with the molecules of air above them, allowing her to ascend and descend, causing her to seemingly walk on air, While phased, she is immune to most physical attacks, and has inconsistent showings of some resistance to telepathy, The density of some materials (such as adamantium) can prove deleterious to her phasing, causing her to be severely disoriented or experience pain if she tries to pass through them,[81] Some energy attacks also prove problematic for Kitty, For example, an energy blast fired by Harpoon, a member of the Marauders, caused her to lose her ability to become fully tangible for months, Magic and magical beings can also harm her in her phased state, as demonstrated in a battle with a N'Garai demon whose claws left no visible marks, but caused Kitty severe pain as they passed through her intangible body,Kitty can also extend her powers to phase other people and objects, She is able to phase at least six other people (or objects of similar mass) with her, so long as they establish and maintain physical contact with her, She can extend her phasing effect to her own clothing or any other object with mass up to that of a small truck, as long as she remains in contact with it, Kitty can also make objects intangible by maintaining contact with them, She has threatened to leave people phased into a wall,[82] and used her power offensively to harm the Technarch Magus,[volume & issue needed] and Danger,[volume & issue needed]Kitty's powers seem to have increased over the years, During an X-Treme X-Men story arc in which she is kidnapped by Reverend William Stryker, she phases out of sync with Earth's rotation to move from one place in the world (only east or west) to another seemingly instantaneously,[volume & issue needed] At the climax of Astonishing X-Men, Kitty phases a 10 mi (16 km) long "bullet" composed of super-dense alien metals through the entire planet Earth, This feat caused her considerable strain, but she is unable to phase out of the bullet,[83] Moreover, originally Kitty found it difficult or impossible to phase only part of her body at a time, In the Days of Future Past story arc, she is possessed by her older future self, allowing her to solidify only her shoulder while phasing the rest of her body through Destiny—a feat explicitly beyond the 13-year-old Kitty's abilities,[84] By contrast, the Kitty Pryde of Joss Whedon's run can punch and kick someone standing on the other side of a wall, selectively phasing and unphasing body parts as necessary,[volume & issue needed] She can even run and leap through an armed opponent, grabbing their weapon as she passes by, which presumably requires her to solidify only the surface area of the palms of her hands and then immediately phase both her palms and the weapon,[volume & issue needed]Besides her mutant powers, Kitty is a genius in the field of applied technology and computer science, She is highly talented in the design and use of computer hardware, She is a skilled pilot of piston and jet engine aircraft, and a competent pilot of certain advanced interstellar vehicles, She has previously shown a unique ability to wield the Soulsword and also be harmed by it, Since her possession by the ninja demon Ogun, she has been consistently shown to be an excellent hand-to-hand combatant, having since been endowed with a lifetime of training in the martial arts of Japanese ninja and samurai, such as aikido, karate, and ninjutsu, She is also trained in the Israeli martial art of Krav Maga,She is a professional-level dancer in both ballet and modern dance, She speaks fluent English, Japanese, Russian, and the royal and standard languages of the alien Shi'ar and Skrull, and has moderate expertise in Gaelic, Hebrew, and German,Kitty also shares a mental/empathic connection with her pet dragon Lockheed; both she and the alien dragon can "sense" each other's presence at times and generally understand one another's thoughts and actions,Since Kitty used The Black Vortex her powers were augmented to a cosmic scale making her a god-like being,[volume & issue needed] She can phase through any material of any density and can even phase a planet out of Thane's amber which in her normal state is an extremely difficult task to simple phase herself out of the amber, She can also apparently transverse between the planes of the multiverse and is immune to the effects of space, Her appearance can be changed but her natural form appears to be rather gaseous in look,Other versions[edit]Main article: Alternative versions of Kitty PrydeIn addition to her mainstream incarnation, Kitty Pryde has been depicted in other fictional universes,In other media[edit]Television[edit]Kitty Pryde appeared as Sprite in "The X-Men Adventure" episode of Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends, which guest-st*rred the X-Men,[citation needed] She was voiced by Sally Julian, She also appeared in her short-lived "Ariel" costume in the X-Men group cameo at the end of the episode "The Education of a Superhero",Kitty Pryde (voiced by Kath Soucie[citation needed]) was a viewpoint character in the animated television one-shot Pryde of the X-Men, as the newest member of the team, She is a new recruit of the team and is initially frightened of Nightcrawler, due to his demonic appearance, She and Nightcrawler later succeed in defeating Magneto, Once Nightcrawler seemingly dies as a result of having apparently sacrificed himself, Kitty begins to cry until discovering that he is alive and is met with positive relations by her teammates, except Wolverine,In the animated series X-Men: Evolution, Shadowcat is a main character, who is shown as the teenybopper of the team and who has a romantic interest in Brotherhood member Lance Alvers,[citation needed] Shadowcat saves Wolverine in the season one episode "Grim Reminder", where she unintentionally stows away with Nightcrawler while on the Blackbird without the knowledge that he was beginning to pilot the jet, She is also shown to have developed a close friendship with Nightcrawler, despite the fact that she at first displayed a dislike for his appearance, Besides Nightcrawler, she is shown to have formed a friendship with Rogue and Spyke, Her initial dislike of his appearance changes after he is severely wounded by Rogue, while she and the rest of the X-Men tried to recruit her, In this series, she does not have Lockheed for a pet, but she is shown preferring to sleep with a stuffed dragon instead of a teddy bear, Though she has an on-and-off interest in the delinquent mutant boy Lance Alvers, early in the series she displays interest in Cyclops, After Rogue is recruited, she serves as her support in beginning a romantic relationship with Scott and develops a friendship with her, despite their differences, When Avalanche tries to join the X-Men in the season two episode "Joyride", she tries to help him and shows additional attraction to him as she grades him and the other members of the junior team, After he informs her that some members of the group have st*rted a joyride on the Blackbird and helps her avert catastrophe, she staunchly defends him once he is accused by Cyclops of being responsible, When Avalanche st*rts to leave, Shadowcat gives him a brief kiss before his departure, Their relationship continues with the two of them going to a school dance, talking on the phone and going to the mall, Despite being with the Brotherhood, Avalanche tries to protect Kitty in the fight against the Scarlet Witch, In season 3, Kitty and Lance's relationship briefly ends after the Brotherhood and Mystique blow up the X Mansion and are in part responsible for the exposure of mutants, Kitty calls Lance a "hood" after he attacks the high school and he says "he will never be good enough for her", Both look sad at these comments, In the fourth season, the X-Men try to use her powers to damage one of Apocalypse's domes and fails, instead being electrocuted briefly, In the fiftieth episode of the series, entitled "Ghost of a Chance", she comes across Danielle Moonst*r once she depicts herself in a dream sequence to her, Once she wakes out of it, she tries to and successfully finds her, becoming friends with the girl after learning she had been in suspended animation for two years, Prior to this, it is discovered that her fear is phasing repeatedly into the ground and going further without any control of where she is going, Shadowcat plays a key role in the defeat of Apocalypse and asks the Brotherhood for help, They come to her aid; as Lance and Kitty resume their romantic relationship, Of the six main X-Men from the first season of the series, she is one of the four that is still a member of the team in the future Charles Xavier saw while in the mind of Apocalypse, Shadowcat was voiced by Maggie Blue O'Hara,Shadowcat appears in Wolverine and the X-Men,[vague] voiced by Danielle Judovits and was a student at the Xavier Institute before the destruction of the X-Mansion and disappearance of Professor X,[citation needed] When Wolverine reformed the X-Men to take down the Mutant Response Division and save the dismal future controlled by the Sentinels, Kitty was on her way to the "mutant paradise" Genosha, The X-Men came to re-recruit her and she immediately rejoined the team, Shadowcat appears as the youngest member of the team and she seems to have a crush on Iceman as she is jealous when his attention is taken by Emma Frost[85] and is shown with a love-struck face when she lands on Bobby during a Danger Room training session, though she quickly moves away from him when Angel arrives, She seems to have formed a friendship with Tildie Soames after babysitting her in one episode, In the last episode of the series, she uses her powers to penetrate a Sentinel controlled by Magneto, of which Beast had difficulty with, Her design is inspired by the appearance of the character in the Astonishing X-Men comics, and her costume emulates the design with the appearance of the blue and yellow used on her costume, The shorts she wears are based off the appearances of the original X-Men, and her first appearance when she wore a variant of the uniform,Shadowcat appears in The Super Hero Squad Show episode "And Lo,,,A Pilot Shall Come",[citation needed] She appears alongside Colossus at the unveiling of the Great Wall that separates Super Hero City from Villainville and helping citizens into the S,H,I,E,L,D, Shelters, In the episode "Mysterious Mayhem at Mutant Academy", she uses Lockheed to chase Reptil and the hypnotized X-Men out of the girls' bathroom,Motion comics[edit]Shadowcat appears in the Astonishing X-Men motion comic, voiced by Eileen Stevens and Laura Harris,[86]Film[edit]In the film X-Men, she has a small cameo, played by Sumela Kay,[citation needed] She is referenced as the "girl in Illinois who can walk through walls" by Senator Kelly, She is shown in Xavier's class when Wolverine walks in; she returns for her books which she had left behind, grabs them, and phases through the door on her way out, Xavier responds with a cheerful "Bye, Kitty" while Wolverine is st*rtled,In X2, she has a brief appearance played by Katie Stuart,[citation needed] She is shown phasing through walls and through people to escape William Stryker's military forces during their attack on the X-Mansion, Another scene shows her falling through her bed to avoid an assault, She shares a room with Siryn; in the novelization it is stated that this is because her phasing ability gives her partial protection from Siryn's scream, When the President of the United States asks Professor Xavier how he got the files he gave him, Xavier replies that he knows a little girl who can walk through walls,In X-Men: The Last Stand, she is portrayed by Ellen Page and has a central role,[citation needed] She serves as a rival to Rogue for the romantic attentions of Iceman, since their close friendship and their kiss (deleted scene) make Rogue increasingly jealous and frustrated, She also joins the X-Men in the battle on Alcatraz Island, breaking off from the battle to save Leech from the Juggernaut, In the novelization of the film, it is hinted that at some point Kitty had a romantic relationship with Colossus, but that it had long since run its course, although Colossus appears to still retain feelings towards her,Ellen Page reprises her role in X-Men: Days of Future Past,[87] Pryde is the prime facilitator because she has developed a new power,[88] In this film she can send the consciousness of another person back into his or her body in the past, At the beginning of the film, she has been using this ability to repeatedly send Bishop four days back in time whenever the Sentinels attack, thus preventing her group from ever engaging them by having him warn the past team before they are detected, In order to prevent the Sentinels' creation, she sends Wolverine back to 1973 (chosen as the strain of sending someone else back that far would snap their mind, with Logan's healing factor the only thing that makes such a trip survivable for him), and was gravely injured when Wolverine becomes violent due to provocation from events in 1973, After the timeline was successfully altered, Kitty is seen teaching a class at the X-Mansion with Colossus, In the film's alternate release, called The Rogue Cut, Kitty's injuries from sending Wolverine back to the past result in the X-Men rescuing Rogue to take over for her, Rogue absorbs Kitty's powers and takes over, stabilizing Wolverine, and Kitty helps Magneto flee a Sentinel attack,[89]Video games[edit]Kitty Pryde appears in Konami's 1992 X-Men video arcade game, as a non-playable character (NPC),[citation needed] In this game, she is not known as "Sprite"; instead, she plays the "damsel in distress" role as it is based on "Pryde of the X-Men", In the 2010 re-release of the game she is voiced by Mela Lee,Shadowcat is a playable character in the game X-Men II: The Fall of the Mutants,[citation needed]Shadowcat appears as an NPC in the X-Men Legends II: Rise of Apocalypse, voiced by Kim Mai Guest,[86] She has special dialogue with Colossus (who she scolds for flirting with Scarlet Witch),Shadowcat appears in X-Men: The Official Game, with Kim Mai Guest reprising her role,[citation needed]Shadowcat is a playable character in Marvel Super Hero Squad Online, voiced by Tara Strong,[citation needed]In X-Men: Destiny, Gambit mentions that the U-Men had captured Kitty and extracted bits of her power,[citation needed] Gambit obtains a vial of a substance which temporarily lets the character fall through the roof (if the player chose the correct option),Kitty Pryde is a playable character in the Facebook game Marvel: Avengers Alliance,[citation needed]Kitty Pryde is a playable character in the X-Men: Days of Future Past app game,[citation needed]Kitty Pryde is a playable character in the online MMO Marvel Heroes, with Danielle Judovits reprising her role,[citation needed]Novels[edit]Kitty Pryde appears in the X-Men/st*r Trek crossover novel Planet X,[citation needed] In it, she is examined by Geordi La Forge, who notes the similarities between her ability and the chroniton displacement he and Ro Laren experienced in the st*r Trek: The Next Generation episode "The Next Phase",Reception[edit]Kitty Pryde has been well received as a comic book character and as a member of the X-Men, Wizard magazine put her at number #13 in 200 Greatest Comic Characters of All Time, She was the highest female comic character in the list beating rivals such as Wonder Woman, Buffy Summers, and She-Hulk,[90] IGN ranked her as the 47th greatest comic book hero of all time stating that "as X-Men writers have often found it useful to introduce younger teen recruits to offset the experienced members of the team, Kitty Pryde set the standard when she debuted, and none have surpassed her",[91] IGN rated Kitty Pryde #3 on its list of the Top 25 X-Men from the Past 40 Years describing her as the mutant everyman, the common girl turned superhero; IGN also stated that as her pet dragon, Lockheed, "became instantly attached to Kitty, [they] were hooked early on",[92] Marvel,com ranked her as the tenth greatest X-Men member stating that "unquestionably, the dynamic of the X-Men shifted entirely when teenage whiz kid Kitty Pryde joined the team in the early 1980s"; Marvel,com also stated that even though Kitty has since blossomed into a young woman of considerable maturity and power, she remains the access point to the X-Men for countless readers,[93] A later list on Marvel's website, ranking the top 50 X-Men characters, placed her in first place, citing the ease of identifying with her for the audience, and her development over the years,[94]References[edit]^ Jump up to: a b c Kakalios, James (2005-10-04), The Physics of Superheroes, New York: Gotham Books/Penguin Group, Inc, ISBN 978-1-59240-146-8, The author, James Kakalios, is a physics professor, Pages 254-255: "With our improved understanding of physics, we can now more accurately describe Kitty Pryde's mutant power as being able to alter her macroscopic quantum wave function, increasing her tunneling probability to near 100 percent at will," Page 255: "How, when she's is 'phasing' and immaterial, can she walk?"Jump up ^ Grant, Steven, "Permanent Damage - The 20 Most Significant Comics" Comic Book Resources, October 22, 2008^ Jump up to: a b Cronin, Brian (March 16, 2006), "Comic Book Urban Legends Revealed #42", Comic Book Urban Legends Revealed, Comic Book Resources, Retrieved February 4, 2010,Jump up ^ The X-Men Companion, Volume II, 1982, Fantagraphics Books, Inc,Jump up ^ Defalco, Tom (2006-05-01), Comics Creators on X-Men, Titan Books, p, 79, ISBN 1-84576-173-1,Jump up ^ "st*r-LADY REVEALED, "SECRET WARS" ENDS, "ALL-NEW, ALL-DIFFERENT MARVEL" BEGINS",Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #129Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #130^ Jump up to: a b Uncanny X-Men #131Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #138Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #139Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #141-142Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #143Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #151-152Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #166Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #168Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #167Jump up ^ Buchanan, Bruce (August 2008), "The New Mutants: From Superhero Spin-Off to Sci-Fi/Fantasy", Back Issue!, Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (29): 64,Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #177-179Jump up ^ New Mutants #15-17Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #183Jump up ^ New Mutants #60Jump up ^ Kitty Pryde and Wolverine #1-6Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #211Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #212Jump up ^ Fantastic Four Vs, the X-Men # 1Jump up ^ Fantastic Four vs, the X-Men #1-4Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men 225Jump up ^ Excalibur Special Edition #1Jump up ^ Excalibur #32–34Jump up ^ Excalibur (vol, 1) #11Jump up ^ Kitty Pryde, Agent of S,H,I,E,L,D, #1 - #3^ Jump up to: a b Giant Size Astonishing X-Men # 1Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #496Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men # 507Jump up ^ Secret Invasion: Dark Reign # 1Jump up ^ S,W,O,R,D, #1Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #520Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #521Jump up ^ Matt Fraction (w), Whilce Portacio (p), Ed Tadeo (i), "Ghostly" Uncanny X-Men 522 (May, 2010), Marvel Comics^ Jump up to: a b c Matt Fraction (w), Whilce Portacio (p), Ed Tadeo (i), "The Five Lights Part One: Freak Like Me" Uncanny X-Men 526 (July, 2010), Marvel ComicsJump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #529Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #538^ Jump up to: a b c Uncanny X-Men #543Jump up ^ Wolverine and the X-Men #1Jump up ^ Wolverine and the X-Men #4Jump up ^ Wolverine and the X-Men #14-15Jump up ^ All-New X-Men #2Jump up ^ All-New X-Men #5Jump up ^ X-Men: Battle of the Atom #2 (October 2013)Jump up ^ "X-Men: The Trial of Jean Grey Part 1-6 (January–March 2014)Jump up ^ Legendary st*r-Lord #6 (February 2015)Jump up ^ "Guardians of the Galaxy & X-Men: The Black Vortex Part 1-13 (April–June 2015)Jump up ^ Guardians of the Galaxy Vol, 3 #26 (June 2015)Jump up ^ Guardians of the Galaxy Vol, 4 #1 (June 2015)Jump up ^ Guardians of the Galaxy Vol, 4 #2-3 (June 2015)Jump up ^ Guardians of the Galaxy Vol, 4 #6-10 (June 2015)Jump up ^ Guardians of the Galaxy Vol, 4 #11-12 (June 2015)Jump up ^ Guardians of the Galaxy Vol, 4 #19 (June 2015)Jump up ^ X-Men: Prime #1Jump up ^ X-Men: Gold Vol, 1 #1-3Jump up ^ Review of Uncanny X-Men #183, UncannyXmen,net (see "Notes")Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #174 (November 1983)Jump up ^ Secret Wars #5Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #183 (July 1984)Jump up ^ Excalibur Vol, 1 #75Jump up ^ X-Men vol, 2 #110Jump up ^ Astonishing X-Men #14Jump up ^ X-Men Gold #9Jump up ^ X-Men Gold #11Jump up ^ Wolverine & the X-Men #24Jump up ^ Wolverine & the X-Men #37Jump up ^ Guardians of the Galaxy Vol, 3 #13Jump up ^ Legendary st*r-Lord Vol, 1 #6Jump up ^ Legendary st*r-Lord Vol, 1 #7Jump up ^ Legendary st*r-Lord Vol, 1 #8Jump up ^ Legendary st*r-Lord Vol, 1 #11Jump up ^ Guardians of the Galaxy & X-Men: The Black Vortex OmegaJump up ^ X-Men Black Sun #1Jump up ^ X-Men True Friends #1 (1999)Jump up ^ Wolverine vol, 1 #125Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #210Jump up ^ Giant-Size Astonishing X-Men #2Jump up ^ Uncanny X-Men #142Jump up ^ Wolverine e os X-Men (Wolverine and the X-Men) Eps, 3, 4 - "Hindsight Pt, III, Overflow"^ Jump up to: a b "Voice Of Shadowcat - X-Men ǀ Behind The Voice Actors", Behind The Voice Actors, Retrieved October 20, 2017, Check marks indicates role has been confirmed using screenshots of closing credits and other reliable sourcesJump up ^ "'X-Men: Days of Future Past' Cast: Ellen Page, Anna Paquin, Shawn Ashmore Added To Roster", The Huffington Post, 2013-01-26,Jump up ^ Plumb, Ali (July 31, 2013), "Exclusive: Bryan Singer Talks X-Men: Days of Future Past", Empire Magazine, Retrieved August 4, 2013,Jump up ^ McNally, Victoria (July 12, 2015), "Every Secret We Learned Watching The 'X-Men: Rogue Cut'", MTV,com, Retrieved July 17, 2015,Jump up ^ "Wizard's top 200 characters, External link consists of a forum site summing up the top 200 characters of Wizard Magazine since the real site that contains the list is broken", Wizard magazine, Archived from the original on June 8, 2011, Retrieved May 19, 2011,Jump up ^ "Kitty Pryde is number 47", IGN, Retrieved May 19, 2011,Jump up ^ "Top 25 X-Men", IGN, Archived from the original on July 13, 2011, Retrieved May 19, 2011,Jump up ^ "Take 10: Greatest X-Men", Retrieved May 19, 2011,Jump up ^ "The 50 Greatest X-Men of all time Part 5",External links[edit]Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kitty Pryde,Kitty Pryde at Marvel,comUncannyXmen,net Spotlight on ShadowcatKitty Pryde at Curlie (based on DMOZ)[show] v t eKitty Pryde[show] v t eX-Men[show] v t eExcalibur[show] v t eGuardians of the Galaxy[show] v t eWolverineCategories: Characters created by Chris ClaremontCharacters created by John ByrneComics characters introduced in 1980Female characters in comicsFictional American JewsFictional characters from IllinoisFictional characters who can turn intangibleFictional dancersFictional female ninjaFictional linguistsFictional mayorsFictional schoolteachersFictional secret agents and spiesJewish superheroesMarvel Comics martial artistsMarvel Comics mutantsMarvel Comics superheroesS,H,I,E,L,D, agents SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT COMIC BOOKS Comic book From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia It has been suggested that American comic book be merged into this article or section, (Discuss) Proposed since April 2012, The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject, Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page, (August 2010) Comic book Action Comics #1 Comics Comics studies Education History Glossary Technique Cartooning Decompression Fumetti Media Comic book Comic strip Gag cartoon Graphic novel Webcomic Community Awards Collecting Publishing companies Comics Portal v t e This article is about periodicals containing comics, For the comics medium, see Comics, A comic book or comicbook,[1] also called comic magazine and often shortened to simply comic or comics, is a magazine made up of "comics"—narrative artwork in the form of separate panels that represent individual scenes, often accompanied by dialog (usually in word balloons, emblematic of the comic book art form) as well as including brief descriptive prose, The first comic book appeared in the United States in 1933, reprinting the earlier newspaper comic strips, which established many of the story-telling devices used in comics, The term "comic book" arose because the first comic book reprinted humor comic strips, Despite their name, comic books are not necessarily humorous in tone; modern comic books tell stories in many genres, Contents 1 American comic books 1,1 Underground comic books 1,2 Alternative comics 1,3 Graphic novels 1,4 Digital graphic novels 1,5 Comic book collecting 2 European comics 2,1 Franco-Belgian comics 2,2 British comics 2,3 Italian comics 3 Japanese comics (manga) 3,1 Doujinshi 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links American comic books Rulah, Jungle Goddess No, 24 (March 1949): An example of a non-superhero jungle-girl character, Cover artist(s) unknown, Adventures into Darkness: Horror stories Since the introduction of the comic book format in 1933 with the publication of Famous Funnies, the United States has produced the most titles, along with British comics and Japanese manga, in terms of quantity of titles,[citation needed] Cultural historians divide the career of the comic book in the U,S, into several ages or historical eras:[citation needed] Comic book historians continue to debate the exact boundaries of these eras, but they have come to an agreement, the terms for which originated in the fan press, Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover—making it the first known American prototype comic book, The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry,[2] and is the st*rt of the Golden Age of comics, Historians have proposed several names for the Age before Superman, most commonly dubbing it the Platinum Age,[3] While the Platinum Age saw the first use of the term "comic book" (The Yellow Kid in McFadden's Flats (1897)), the first known full-color comic (The Blackberries (1901)), and the first monthly comic book (Comics Monthly (1922)), it was not until the Golden Age that the archetype of the superhero would originate, The Silver Age of comic books is generally considered to date from the first successful revival of the dormant superhero form—the debut of Robert Kanigher and Carmine Infantino's Flash in Showcase No, 4 (September/October 1956),[4][5] The Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Stan Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man, The precise beginnings of the Bronze and Copper Ages remain less well-defined, Suggested st*rting points for the Bronze Age of comics include Roy Thomas and Barry Windsor-Smith's Conan No, 1 (October 1970), Denny O'Neil and Neal Adams' Green Lantern/Green Arrow No, 76 (April 1970), or Stan Lee and Gil Kane's The Amazing Spider-Man No, 96 (May 1971; the non-Comics Code issue), The st*rt of the Copper Age (apprx, 1984–2000) has even more potential st*rting points, but is generally agreed to be the publication of Frank Miller's Batman: The Dark Knight Returns and Alan Moore's Watchmen by DC Comics in 1986, as well as the publication of DC's Crisis on Infinite Earths, written by Marv Wolfman with pencils by George Pérez, A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with the psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent (1954), which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books, In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U,S, comic book industry set up the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the "Comics Code" in the same year, Underground comic books Main article: Underground comix In the late 1960s and early 1970s a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comics, Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time, Many had an uninhibited, often irreverent style; their frank depictions of nudity, sex, profanity, and politics had no parallel outside their precursors, the pornographic and even more obscure "Tijuana bibles", Underground comics were almost never sold at news stands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order, Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon,[6][7] has been credited as the first underground comic,[6][7] Alternative comics Main article: Alternative comics The rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U,S, The first such comics included the anthology series st*r Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, and Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman and Robert Pulcini adapted into a 2003 film, Some independent comics continued in the tradition of underground comics, though their content was generally less explicit, and others resembled the output of mainstream publishers in format and genre but were published by smaller artist-owned companies or by single artists, A few (notably RAW) were experimental attempts to bring comics closer to the status of fine art, During the 1970s the "small press" culture grew and diversified, By the 1980s, several independent publishers, such as Pacific, Eclipse, First, Comico, and Fantagraphics had st*rted releasing a wide range of styles and formats—from color superhero, detective, and science fiction comic books to black-and-white magazine-format stories of Latin American magical realism, A number of small publishers in the 1990s changed the format and distribution of their comics to more closely resemble non-comics publishing, The "minicomics" form, an extremely informal version of self-publishing, arose in the 1980s and became increasingly popular among artists in the 1990s, despite reaching an even more limited audience than the small press, Small publishers regularly releasing titles include Avatar Comics, Hyperwerks, Raytoons, and Terminal Press, buoyed by such advances in printing technology as digital print-on-demand, Graphic novels Main article: Graphic novel In 1964, Richard Kyle coined the term "graphic novel" to distinguish newly translated European works from genre-driven subject matter common in American comics, Precursors of the form existed by the 1920s, which saw a revival of the medieval woodcut tradition by Belgian Frans Masereel,[8] American Lynd Ward and others, In 1950, St, John Publications produced the digest-sized, adult-oriented "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust, a 128-page digest by pseudonymous writer "Drake Waller" (Arnold Drake and Leslie Waller), penciler Matt Baker and inker Ray Osrin, touted as "an original full-length novel" on its cover, In 1971, writer-artist Gil Kane and collaborators devised the paperback "comics novel" Blackmark, Will Eisner popularized the term "graphic novel" when he used it on the cover of the paperback edition of his work A Contract with God, and Other Tenement Stories in 1978, Digital graphic novels See also: Digital comics Comic book collecting Main article: Comic book collecting This section requires expansion, (April 2012) Some rare comic books include copies of the unreleased Motion Picture Funnies Weekly No, 1 from 1939, Eight copies, plus one without a cover, emerged in the estate of the deceased publisher in 1974, The "Pay Copy" of this book sold for $43,125 in a 2005 Heritage auction,[9] The most valuable American comics have combined rarity and quality with the first appearances of popular and enduring characters, Four comic books to have sold for over $1 million USD as of December 2010, including two examples of Action Comics No, 1, the first appearance of Superman,[10][11] both sold privately through online dealer ComicConnect,com in 2010, and Detective Comics No, 27, the first appearance of Batman, via public auction, Misprints, promotional comic-dealer incentive printings, and similar issues with extremely low distribution also generally have scarcity value, The rarest modern comic books include the original press run of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen No, 5, which DC executive Paul Levitz recalled and pulped due to the appearance of a vintage Victorian era advertisement for "Marvel Douche", which the publisher considered offensive;[12] only 100 copies exist, most of which have been CGC graded, (See Recalled comics for more pulped, recalled, and erroneous comics,) In 2000, a company named CGC began to "slab" comics, encasing them in a thick plastic and giving them a numeric grade, European comics Main article: European comics Franco-Belgian comics Main article: Franco-Belgian comics France and Belgium have a long tradition in comics and comic books, called BDs (an abbreviation of bande dessinées) in French and strips in Dutch, Belgian comic books originally written in Dutch show the influence of the Francophone "Franco-Belgian" comics, but have their own distinct style, The name la bande dessinée derives from the original description of the art form as drawn strips (the phrase literally translates as "the drawn strip"), analogous to the sequence of images in a film strip, As in its English equivalent, the word "bande" can be applied to both film and comics, Significantly, the French-language term contains no indication of subject-matter, unlike the American terms "comics" and "funnies", which imply an art form not to be taken seriously, The distinction of comics as le neuvième art (literally, "the ninth art") is prevalent in French scholarship on the form, as is the concept of comics criticism and scholarship itself, Relative to the respective size of their populations, the innumerable authors in France and Belgium publish a high volume of comic books, In North America, the more serious Franco-Belgian comics are often seen as equivalent to graphic novels, but whether they are long or short, bound or in magazine format, in Europe there is no need for a more sophisticated term, as the art's name does not itself imply something frivolous, In France, authors control the publication of most comics, The author works within a self-appointed time-frame, and it is common for readers to wait six months or as long as two years between installments, Most books first appear in print as a hardcover book, typically with 48, 56, or 64 pages, British comics Main article: British comics Originally the same size as a usual comic book in the U,S, (although lacking the glossy cover), the British comic has adopted a magazine size, with The Beano and The Dandy the last to adopt this size (in the 1980s), Although the British generally speak of "a comic" or of "a comic magazine", and they also historically spoke of "a comic paper",[citation needed] Some comics, such as Judge Dredd and other 2000 AD titles, have been published in a tabloid form, Although Ally Sloper's Half Holiday (1884), the first comic published in Britain, was aimed at an adult market, publishers quickly targeted a younger market, which has led to most publications being for children and created an association in the public's mind of comics as somewhat juvenile, Popular titles within the UK have included The Beano, The Dandy, The Eagle, 2000 AD, and Viz, Underground comics and "small press" titles have also been published within the UK, notably Oz and Escape Magazine, The content of Action, another title aimed at children and launched in the mid-1970s, became the subject of discussion in the House of Commons, Although on a smaller scale than similar investigations in the U,S,, such concerns led to a moderation of content published within British comics, Such moderation never became formalized to the extent of promulgating a code, nor did it last long, The UK has also established a healthy market in the reprinting and repackaging of material, notably material originating in the U,S, The lack of reliable supplies of American comic books led to a variety of black-and-white reprints, including Marvel's monster comics of the 1950s, Fawcett's Captain Marvel, and other characters such as Sheena, Mandrake the Magician, and the Phantom, Several reprint companies were involved in repackaging American material for the British market, notably the importer and distributor Thorpe & Porter, Marvel Comics established a UK office in 1972, DC Comics and Dark Horse Comics also opened offices in the 1990s, The repackaging of European material has occurred less frequently, although the Tintin and Asterix serials have been successfully translated and repackaged in softcover books, At Christmas time, publishers repackage and commission material for comic annuals, printed and bound as hardcover A4-size books; Rupert supplies a famous example of the British comic annual, DC Thomson also repackages The Broons and Oor Wullie strips in softcover A4-size books for the holiday season, On 19 March 2012, the British postal service, the Royal Mail, released a set of stamps depicting British comic-book characters and series,[13] The collection featured The Beano, The Dandy, Eagle, The Topper, Roy of the Rovers, Bunty, Buster, Valiant, Twinkle and 2000 AD, Italian comics Main article: Italian comics In Italy, comics (known in Italian as fumetti) made their debut as humor strips at the end of the 19th century, and later evolved into adventure stories, After World War II, however, artists like Hugo Pratt and Guido Crepax exposed Italian comics to an international audience, Popular comic books such as Diabolik or the Bonelli line—namely Tex Willer or Dylan Dog—remain best-sellers, Mainstream comics are usually published on a monthly basis, in a black-and-white digest size format, with approximately 100 to 132 pages, Collections of classic material for the most famous characters, usually with more than 200 pages, are also common, Author comics are published in the French BD format, with an example being Pratt's Corto Maltese, Italian cartoonists show the influence of comics from other countries, including France, Belgium, Spain, and Argentina, Italy is also famous for being one of the foremost producers of Walt Disney comic stories outside the U,S, Donald Duck's superhero alter ego, Paperinik, known in English as Superduck, was created in Italy, Japanese comics (manga) This section may not properly summarize its corresponding main article, Specific concerns can be found on the Talk page, Please help us improve this article if you can, Main article: Manga The first comic books in Japan appeared during the 18th century in the form of woodblock-printed booklets containing short stories drawn from folk tales, legends, and historical accounts, told in a simple visual-verbal idiom, Known as "red books" (?? akahon?), "black books" (?? kurobon?), and "blue books" (?? aohon?), these were written primarily for less literate readers, However, with the publication in 1775 of Koikawa Harumachi's comic book Master Flashgold's Splendiferous Dream (???????? Kinkin sensei eiga no yume?), an adult form of comic book originated, which required greater literacy and cultural sophistication, This was known as the kibyoshi (????, lit, yellow cover), Published in thousands of copies, the kibyoshi may have been the earliest fully realized comic book for adults in world literary history, Approximately 2,000 titles remain extant, Modern comic books in Japan developed from a mixture of these earlier comic books and of woodblock prints ukiyo-e (????) with Western styles of drawing, They took their current form shortly after World War II, They are usually published in black-and-white, except for the covers, which are usually printed in four colors, although occasionally, the first few pages may also be printed in full color, The term manga means "random (or whimsical) pictures", and first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santo Kyoden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai (?????) (1798) and Aikawa Minwa's Comic Sketches of a Hundred Women (1798), During the Meiji period, the term Akahon was also common, Western artists were brought over to teach their students such concepts as line, form, and color; things which had not been regarded as conceptually important in ukiyo-e, as the idea behind the picture was of paramount importance, Manga at this time was referred to as Ponchi-e (Punch-picture) and, like its British counterpart Punch magazine, mainly depicted humor and political satire in short one- or four-picture format, Dr, Osamu Tezuka (1928–1989) further developed this form, Seeing an animated war propaganda film titled Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors (??? ???? Momotaro Umi no Shinpei?) inspired Tezuka to become a comic artist, He introduced episodic storytelling and character development in comic format, in which each story is part of larger story arc, The only text in Tezuka's comics was the characters' dialogue and this further lent his comics a cinematic quality, Inspired by the work of Walt Disney, Tezuka also adopted a style of drawing facial features in which a character's eyes, nose, and mouth are drawn in an extremely exaggerated manner, This style created immediately recognizable expressions using very few lines, and the simplicity of this style allowed Tezuka to be prolific, Tezuka's work generated new interest in the ukiyo-e tradition, in which the image is a representation of an idea, rather than a depiction of reality, Though a close equivalent to the American comic book, manga has historically held a more important place in Japanese culture than comics have in American culture, Japanese society shows a wide respect for manga, both as an art form and as a form of popular literature, Many manga become television shows or short films, As with its American counterpart, some manga has been criticized for its sexuality and violence, although in the absence of official or even industry restrictions on content, artists have freely created manga for every age group and for every topic, Manga magazines—also known as "anthologies"—often run several series concurrently, with approximately 20 to 40 pages allocated to each series per issue, These magazines range from 200 to more than 850 pages each, Manga magazines also contain one-shot comics and a variety of four-panel yonkoma (equivalent to comic strips), Manga series may continue for many years if they are successful, with stories often collected and reprinted in book-sized volumes called tankobon (????, lit, stand-alone book), the equivalent of the American trade paperbacks, These volumes use higher-quality paper and are useful to readers who want to be brought up to date with a series, or to readers who find the cost of the weekly or monthly publications to be prohibitive, Deluxe versions are printed as commemorative or collectible editions, Conversely, old manga titles are also reprinted using lower-quality paper and sold for 120 ¥ (approximately $1 USD) each, Doujinshi Main article: Doujinshi Doujinshi (????, lit, fan magazine), fan-made Japanese comics operate in a far larger market in Japan than the American "underground comics" market; the largest doujinshi fair, Comic Market, attracts 500,000 visitors twice a year, See also Comics portal Cartoon Comics Studies Comics vocabulary Webcomic Digital comics Comic book therapy -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Science fiction From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Scifi" and "Sci Fi" redirect here, For other uses, see Scifi (disambiguation), Speculative fiction Alternate history Writers Fantasy fiction Anime Art Fantastic art Fiction magazines Films Genres History Legendary creatures Literature Quests and artifacts Races Television Themes Worlds Writers Horror fiction Anime Awards Conventions Fiction magazines Films Genres Television Writers Science fiction Anime Artists Awards Conventions Editors Fandom Fiction magazines Genres History Organizations Television Themes Writers Other Internet Speculative Fiction Database The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction Speculative fiction portal v t e Science fiction is a genre of fiction with imaginative but more or less plausible content such as settings in the future, futuristic science and technology, space travel, parallel universes, aliens, and paranormal abilities, Exploring the consequences of scientific innovations is one purpose of science fiction, making it a "literature of ideas",[1] Science fiction has been used by authors and film/television program makers as a device to discuss philosophical ideas such as identity, desire, morality and social structure etc, Science fiction is largely based on writing rationally about alternative possible worlds or futures,[2] It is similar to, but differs from fantasy in that, within the context of the story, its imaginary elements are largely possible within scientifically established or scientifically postulated laws of nature (though some elements in a story might still be pure imaginative speculation), The settings for science fiction are often contrary to consensus reality, but most science fiction relies on a considerable degree of suspension of disbelief, which is facilitated in the reader's mind by potential scientific explanations or solutions to various fictional elements, Science fiction elements include: A time setting in the future, in alternative timelines, or in a historical past that contradicts known facts of history or the archaeological record, A spatial setting or scenes in outer space (e,g, spaceflight), on other worlds, or on subterranean earth,[3] Characters that include aliens, mutants, androids, or humanoid robots, Futuristic technology such as ray guns, teleportation machines, and humanoid computers,[4] Scientific principles that are new or that contradict accepted laws of nature, for example time travel, wormholes, or faster-than-light travel, New and different political or social systems, e,g, dystopia, post-scarcity, or a post-apocalyptic situation where organized society has collapsed,[5] Paranormal abilities such as mind control, telepathy, telekinesis, and teleportation, Other universes or dimensions and travel between them, Contents 1 Definitions 2 History 2,1 The term "sci-fi" 2,2 Innovation 3 Subgenres 3,1 Hard SF 3,2 Soft and social SF 3,3 Cyberpunk 3,4 Time travel 3,5 Alternate history 3,6 Military SF 3,7 Superhuman 3,8 Apocalyptic 3,9 Space opera 3,10 Space Western 3,11 Other sub-genres 4 Related genres 4,1 Speculative fiction, fantasy, and horror 4,2 Fantasy 4,3 Horror fiction 4,4 Mystery fiction 4,5 Superhero fiction 5 Fandom and community 5,1 Awards 5,2 Conventions, clubs, and organizations 5,3 Fanzines and online fandom 5,4 Fan fiction 6 Science fiction studies 6,1 Science fiction as serious literature 7 Science fiction world-wide 7,1 Africa and African diaspora 7,2 Asia and the Middle East 7,3 Europe 7,3,1 Germany and Austria 7,3,2 France, other Francophone countries, and Québec 7,3,3 Russia, the Soviet Union and post-Soviet states 7,4 Oceania 7,5 North America 7,6 Latin America 8 See also 9 Notes and references 9,1 Notes 9,2 References 10 External links Definitions For more details on this topic, see Definitions of science fiction, Science fiction is difficult to define, as it includes a wide range of subgenres and themes, Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it",[6] a definition echoed by author Mark C, Glassy, who argues that the definition of science fiction is like the definition of pornography: you don't know what it is, but you know it when you see it,[7] Vladimir Nabokov argued that if we were rigorous with our definitions, Shakespeare's play The Tempest would have to be termed science fiction,[8] According to science fiction writer Robert A, Heinlein, "a handy short definition of almost all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world, past and present, and on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method,"[9] Rod Serling's definition is "fantasy is the impossible made probable, Science fiction is the improbable made possible,"[10] Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado—or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is", and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no easily delineated limits to science fiction,"[11] History For more details on this topic, see History of science fiction, As a means of understanding the world through speculation and storytelling, science fiction has antecedents back to mythology, though precursors to science fiction as literature can be seen in Lucian's True History in the 2nd century,[12][13][14][15][16] some of the Arabian Nights tales,[17][18] The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter in the 10th century[18] and Ibn al-Nafis' Theologus Autodidactus in the 13th century,[19] A product of the budding Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels[20] was one of the first true science fantasy works, together with Voltaire's Micromégas (1752) and Johannes Kepler's Somnium (1620–1630),[21] Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan consider the latter work the first science fiction story,[22][23] It depicts a journey to the Moon and how the Earth's motion is seen from there, Another example is Ludvig Holberg's novel Nicolai Klimii iter subterraneum, 1741, (Translated to Danish by Hans Hagerup in 1742 as Niels Klims underjordiske Rejse,) (Eng, Niels Klim's Underground Travels,) Brian Aldiss has argued that Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1818) was the first work of science fiction,[24] Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, in the early 19th century, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science fiction novel;[25] later Edgar Allan Poe wrote a story about a flight to the moon,[26] More examples appeared throughout the 19th century, H, G, Wells Then with the dawn of new technologies such as electricity, the telegraph, and new forms of powered transportation, writers including Jules Verne and H, G, Wells created a body of work that became popular across broad cross-sections of society,[27] Wells' The War of the Worlds (1898) describes an invasion of late Victorian England by Martians using tripod fighting machines equipped with advanced weaponry, It is a seminal depiction of an alien invasion of Earth, In the late 19th century, the term "scientific romance" was used in Britain to describe much of this fiction, This produced additional offshoots, such as the 1884 novella Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions by Edwin Abbott Abbott, The term would continue to be used into the early 20th century for writers such as Olaf Stapledon, Jules Verne In the early 20th century, pulp magazines helped develop a new generation of mainly American SF writers, influenced by Hugo Gernsback, the founder of Amazing Stories magazine,[28] In 1912 Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long series of Barsoom novels, situated on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero, The 1928 publication of Philip Nolan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419, in Amazing Stories was a landmark event, This story led to comic strips featuring Buck Rogers (1929), Brick Bradford (1933), and Flash Gordon (1934), The comic strips and derivative movie serials greatly popularized science fiction, In the late 1930s, John W, Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, and a critical mass of new writers emerged in New York City in a group called the Futurians, including Isaac Asimov, Damon Knight, Donald A, Wollheim, Frederik Pohl, James Blish, Judith Merril, and others,[29] Other important writers during this period and later, include E,E, (Doc) Smith, Robert A, Heinlein, Arthur C, Clarke, Olaf Stapledon, A, E, van Vogt, Ray Bradbury and Stanislaw Lem, Campbell's tenure at Astounding is considered to be the beginning of the Golden Age of science fiction, characterized by hard SF stories celebrating scientific achievement and progress,[28] This lasted until postwar technological advances, new magazines such as Galaxy under Pohl as editor, and a new generation of writers began writing stories outside the Campbell mode, In the 1950s, the Beat generation included speculative writers such as William S, Burroughs, In the 1960s and early 1970s, writers like Frank Herbert, Samuel R, Delany, Roger Zelazny, and Harlan Ellison explored new trends, ideas, and writing styles, while a group of writers, mainly in Britain, became known as the New Wave for their embrace of a high degree of experimentation, both in form and in content, and a highbrow and self-consciously "literary" or artistic sensibility,[20] In the 1970s, writers like Larry Niven and Poul Anderson began to redefine hard SF,[30] Ursula K, Le Guin and others pioneered soft science fiction,[31] In the 1980s, cyberpunk authors like William Gibson turned away from the optimism and support for progress of traditional science fiction,[32] This dystopian vision of the near future is described in the work of Philip K, Dick, such as Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and We Can Remember It for You Wholesale, which resulted in the films Blade Runner and Total Recall, The st*r Wars franchise helped spark a new interest in space opera,[33] focusing more on story and character than on scientific accuracy, C, J, Cherryh's detailed explorations of alien life and complex scientific challenges influenced a generation of writers,[34] Emerging themes in the 1990s included environmental issues, the implications of the global Internet and the expanding information universe, questions about biotechnology and nanotechnology, as well as a post-Cold War interest in post-scarcity societies; Neal Stephenson's The Diamond Age comprehensively explores these themes, Lois McMaster Bujold's Vorkosigan novels brought the character-driven story back into prominence,[35] The television series st*r Trek: The Next Generation (1987) began a torrent of new SF shows, including three further st*r Trek spin-off shows and Babylon 5,[36][37] Concern about the rapid pace of technological change crystallized around the concept of the technological singularity, popularized by Vernor Vinge's novel Marooned in Realtime and then taken up by other authors,[citation needed] The term "sci-fi" Forrest J Ackerman used the term sci-fi (analogous to the then-trendy "hi-fi") at UCLA in 1954,[38] As science fiction entered popular culture, writers and fans active in the field came to associate the term with low-budget, low-tech "B-movies" and with low-quality pulp science fiction,[39][40][41] By the 1970s, critics within the field such as Terry Carr and Damon Knight were using sci-fi to distinguish hack-work from serious science fiction,[42] and around 1978, Susan Wood and others introduced the pronunciation "skiffy", Peter Nicholls writes that "SF" (or "sf") is "the preferred abbreviation within the community of sf writers and readers",[43] David Langford's monthly fanzine Ansible includes a regular section "As Others See Us" which offers numerous examples of "sci-fi" being used in a pejorative sense by people outside the genre,[44] Innovation Science fiction has criticised developing and future technologies, but also initiates innovation and new technology, This topic has been more often discussed in literary and sociological than in scientific forums, Cinema and media theorist Vivian Sobchack examines the dialogue between science fiction films and the technological imagination, Technology impacts artists and how they portray their fictionalized subjects, but the fictional world gives back to science by broadening imagination, How William Shatner Changed the World is a documentary that gave many real-world examples of actualized technological imaginations, While more prevalent in the early years of science fiction with writers like Arthur C, Clarke, new authors still find ways to make currently impossible technologies seem closer to being realized,[45] Subgenres For more details on this topic, see Science fiction genre, A categorization of science fiction into various subgenres can be problematic, because these subcategories are not simple pigeonholes, Some works may overlap two or more commonly defined genres, whereas others are beyond the generic boundaries, either outside or between categories, Moreover, the categories and genres used by mass markets and literary criticism differ considerably, One example that straddles science fiction subgenres is Elizabeth Moon's Vatta's War series, which has been described by many as military science fiction but also has elements of space opera, Hard SF Main article: Hard science fiction This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) Arthur C, Clarke Hard science fiction, or "hard SF", is characterized by rigorous attention to accurate detail in quantitative sciences, especially physics, astrophysics, and chemistry, or on accurately depicting worlds that more advanced technology may make possible, Many accurate predictions of the future come from the hard science fiction subgenre, but numerous inaccurate predictions have emerged as well,[citation needed] Some hard SF authors have distinguished themselves as working scientists, including Gregory Benford, Geoffrey A, Landis and David Brin,[46][47] while mathematician authors include Rudy Rucker and Vernor Vinge, Other noteworthy hard SF authors include Isaac Asimov, Arthur C, Clarke, Hal Clement, Greg Bear, Larry Niven, Robert J, Sawyer, Stephen Baxter, Alastair Reynolds, Charles Sheffield, Ben Bova, Kim Stanley Robinson and Greg Egan, Soft and social SF Main article: Soft science fiction This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) The description "soft" science fiction may describe works based on social sciences such as psychology, economics, political science, sociology, and anthropology, Noteworthy writers in this category include Ursula K, Le Guin and Philip K, Dick,[28][48] The term can describe stories focused primarily on character and emotion; SFWA Grand Master Ray Bradbury was an acknowledged master of this art,[49] The Eastern Bloc produced a large quantity of social science fiction, including works by Polish authors Stanislaw Lem and Janusz Zajdel, as well as Soviet authors such as the Strugatsky brothers, Kir Bulychov, Yevgeny Zamyatin and Ivan Yefremov,[50][51] Some writers blur the boundary between hard and soft science fiction,[52] Related to social SF and soft SF are utopian and dystopian stories; George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, and Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale are examples, Satirical novels with fantastic settings such as Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift may also be considered science fiction or speculative fiction, Cyberpunk Main article: Cyberpunk This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) The cyberpunk genre emerged in the early 1980s; combining cybernetics and punk,[53] the term was coined by author Bruce Bethke for his 1980 short story "Cyberpunk",[54] The time frame is usually near-future and the settings are often dystopian in nature and characterized by misery, Common themes in cyberpunk include advances in information technology and especially the Internet, visually abstracted as cyberspace, artificial intelligence, and prosthetics and post-democratic societal control where corporations have more influence than governments, Nihilism, post-modernism, and film noir techniques are common elements, and the protagonists may be disaffected or reluctant anti-heroes, Noteworthy authors in this genre are William Gibson, Bruce Sterling, Neal Stephenson, and Pat Cadigan, James O'Ehley has called the 1982 film Blade Runner a definitive example of the cyberpunk visual style,[55] Time travel This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) Time travel stories have antecedents in the 18th and 19th centuries, The first major time travel novel was Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, The most famous is H, G, Wells's 1895 novel The Time Machine, which uses a vehicle that allows an operator to travel purposefully and selectively, while Twain's time traveler is struck in the head, The term "time machine", coined by Wells, is now universally used to refer to such a vehicle, Stories of this type are complicated by logical problems such as the grandfather paradox,[56] Time travel continues to be a popular subject in modern science fiction, in print, movies, and television such as the BBC television series Doctor Who, Alternate history Main article: Alternate history This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) Alternate (or alternative) history stories are based on the premise that historical events might have turned out differently, These stories may use time travel to change the past, or may simply set a story in a universe with a different history from our own, Classics in the genre include Bring the Jubilee by Ward Moore, in which the South wins the American Civil War, and The Man in the High Castle by Philip K, Dick, in which Germany and Japan win World War II, The Sidewise Award acknowledges the best works in this subgenre; the name is taken from Murray Leinster's 1934 story "Sidewise in Time," Harry Turtledove is one of the most prominent authors in the subgenre and is sometimes called the "master of alternate history",[57][58] Military SF Main article: Military science fiction This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) Military science fiction is set in the context of conflict between national, interplanetary, or interstellar armed forces; the primary viewpoint characters are usually soldiers, Stories include detail about military technology, procedure, ritual, and history; military stories may use parallels with historical conflicts, Heinlein's st*rship Troopers is an early example, along with the Dorsai novels of Gordon Dickson, Joe Haldeman's The Forever War is a critique of the genre, a Vietnam-era response to the World War II–style stories of earlier authors,[59] Prominent military SF authors include John Ringo, David Drake, David Weber, and S, M, Stirling, The publishing company Baen Books is known for cultivating military science fiction authors,[60] Superhuman This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) Superhuman stories deal with the emergence of humans who have abilities beyond the norm, This can stem either from natural causes such as in Olaf Stapledon's novel Odd John, and Theodore Sturgeon's More Than Human, or be the result of intentional augmentation such as in A, E, van Vogt's novel Slan, These stories usually focus on the alienation that these beings feel as well as society's reaction to them, These stories have played a role in the real life discussion of human enhancement, Frederik Pohl's Man Plus also belongs to this category, Apocalyptic Main article: Apocalyptic fiction This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) Apocalyptic fiction is concerned with the end of civilization through war (On the Beach), pandemic (The Last Man), astronomic impact (When Worlds Collide), ecological disaster (The Wind from Nowhere), or some other general disaster or with a world or civilization after such a disaster, Typical of the genre are George R, Stewart's novel Earth Abides and Pat Frank's novel Alas, Babylon, Apocalyptic fiction generally concerns the disaster itself and the direct aftermath, while post-apocalyptic can deal with anything from the near aftermath (as in Cormac McCarthy's The Road) to 375 years in the future (as in By The Waters of Babylon) to hundreds or thousands of years in the future, as in Russell Hoban's novel Riddley Walker and Walter M, Miller, Jr,'s A Canticle for Leibowitz, Space opera Main article: Space opera This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) Space opera is adventure science fiction set in outer space or on distant planets, The conflict is heroic, and typically on a large scale, Space opera is sometimes used pejoratively, to describe improbable plots, absurd science, and cardboard characters, But it is also used nostalgically, and modern space opera may be an attempt to recapture the sense of wonder of the golden age of science fiction, The pioneer of this subgenre is generally recognized to be Edward E, (Doc) Smith, with his Skylark and Lensman series, L, Ron Hubbard's Battlefield Earth is an example of this subgenre,[61] The st*r Trek television series franchise is often described as space opera that encourages this sense of wonder, in that most of the scripts are generally about peaceful space exploration and examinations of cultural differences rather than about conflict between civilizations, Alastair Reynolds's Revelation Space series, Peter F, Hamilton's Void, Night's Dawn, Pandora's st*r series, Vernor Vinge's A Fire Upon the Deep, A Deepness in the Sky are newer examples of this genre, Space Western Main article: Space Western This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) Space Western could be considered a sub-genre of space opera that transposes themes of the American Western books and film to a backdrop of futuristic space frontiers, These stories typically involve "frontier" colony worlds (colonies that have only recently been terraformed and/or settled) serving as stand-ins for the backdrop of lawlessness and economic expansion that were predominant in the American west, Examples include the Sean Connery film Outland, the Firefly television series, and the film sequel Serenity by Joss Whedon, as well as the manga and anime series Trigun, Outlaw st*r, and Cowboy Bebop, Other sub-genres This section requires expansion, (June 2008) Anthropological science fiction This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) is a sub-genre that absorbs and discusses anthropology and the study of human kind, Examples include Hominids by Robert J, Sawyer, and Neanderthal by John Darnton, Biopunk This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) focuses on biotechnology and subversives, Comic science fiction This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) is a sub-genre that exploits the genre's conventions for comic effect, Feminist science fiction poses questions about social issues such as how society constructs gender roles, the role reproduction plays in defining gender and the unequal political and personal power of men and women, Some of the most notable feminist science fiction works have illustrated these themes using utopias to explore a society in which gender differences or gender power imbalances do not exist, or dystopias to explore worlds in which gender inequalities are intensified, thus asserting a need for feminist work to continue,[62] Joanna Russ's work, and some of Ursula Le Guin's work can be thus categorized, Steampunk This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) is based on the idea of futuristic technology existing in the past, usually the 19th century, and often set in Victorian era England—but with prominent elements of either science fiction or fantasy, such as fictional technological inventions like those found in the works of H, G, Wells and Jules Verne, or real technological developments like the computer occurring at an earlier date, Popular examples include The Difference Engine by William Gibson and Bruce Sterling, as well as the Girl Genius series by Phil and Kaja Foglio, although seeds of the genre may be seen in certain works of Michael Moorcock, Philip Jose Farmer and Steve Stiles, and in such games as Space 1889 and Marcus Rowland's Forgotten Futures, Machines are most often powered by steam in this genre (hence the name), Dieselpunk takes over where Steampunk leaves off, These are stories that take over as we usher in the machine-heavy eras of WWI and WWII, The use of diesel-powered machines plays heavily, In this (like its steam counterpart), the focus is on the technology, Science-fiction poetry This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) is poetry that has the characteristics or subject matter of science fiction, Science fiction poetry's main sources are the sciences and the literary movement of science fiction prose, An extended discussion of the field is given in Suzette Haden Elgin's The Science Fiction Poetry Handbook, where she compares and contrasts it to both mainstream poetry and to prose science fiction, The former, she maintains, uses figures of speech unencumbered by noncompliant details, whereas these details can be key elements in science-fiction poetry, Prose in science fiction has the time to develop a setting and a story, whereas a poem in the field is normally constrained by its short length to rely on some device to get a point across quickly, Elgin says that the effectiveness of this kind of poetry pivots around the correct use of presupposition, [63], The Science Fiction Association is an international organization of speculative poets, [64] which gives the annual Rhysling awards for speculative poetry, An early example of science fiction in poetry is in Alfred, Lord Tennyson's "Locksley Hall", where he introduces a picture of the future with "When I dipt into the future far as human eye could see,,,," This poem was written in 1835, near the end of the first Industrial Revolution, Poetry was only sparingly published in traditional science-fiction outlets such as pulp magazines until the New Wave, [65] By the 1980s there were magazines specifically devoted to science-fiction poetry, [66] Related genres Speculative fiction, fantasy, and horror For more details on this topic, see speculative fiction, The broader category of speculative fiction[67] includes science fiction, fantasy, alternate histories (which may have no particular scientific or futuristic component), and even literary stories that contain fantastic elements, such as the work of Jorge Luis Borges or John Barth, For some editors, magic realism is considered to be within the broad definition of speculative fiction,[68] Fantasy Main article: Fantasy Fantasy is closely associated with science fiction, and many writers have worked in both genres, while writers such as Anne McCaffrey, Ursula K, LeGuin, and Marion Zimmer Bradley have written works that appear to blur the boundary between the two related genres,[69] The authors' professional organization is called the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA),[70] SF conventions routinely have programming on fantasy topics,[71][72][73] and fantasy authors such as J, K, Rowling have won the highest honor within the science fiction field, the Hugo Award,[74] In general, science fiction differs from fantasy in that the former concerns things that might someday be possible or that at least embody the pretense of realism, Supernaturalism, usually absent in science fiction, is the distinctive characteristic of fantasy literature, A dictionary definition referring to fantasy literature is "fiction characterized by highly fanciful or supernatural elements," [75] Examples of fantasy supernaturalism include magic (spells, harm to opponents), magical places (Narnia, Oz, Middle Earth, Hogwarts), supernatural creatures (witches, vampires, orcs, trolls), supernatural transportation (flying broomsticks, ruby slippers, windows between worlds), and shapeshifting (beast into man, man into wolf or bear, lion into sheep), Such things are basic themes in fantasy,[76] Literary critic Fredric Jameson has characterized the difference between the two genres by describing science fiction as turning "on a formal framework determined by concepts of the mode of production rather than those of religion" - that is, science fiction texts are bound by an inner logic based more on historical materialism than on magic or the forces of good and evil,[77] Some narratives are described as being essentially science fiction but "with fantasy elements", The term "science fantasy" is sometimes used to describe such material,[78] Horror fiction Main article: Horror fiction Horror fiction is the literature of the unnatural and supernatural, with the aim of unsettling or frightening the reader, sometimes with graphic violence, Historically it has also been known as weird fiction, Although horror is not per se a branch of science fiction, many works of horror literature incorporates science fictional elements, One of the defining classical works of horror, Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein, is the first fully realized work of science fiction, where the manufacture of the monster is given a rigorous science-fictional grounding, The works of Edgar Allan Poe also helped define both the science fiction and the horror genres,[79] Today horror is one of the most popular categories of films,[80] Horror is often mistakenly categorized as science fiction at the point of distribution by libraries, video rental outlets, etc, For example, Syfy (distributed via cable and satellite television in the United States) currently devotes most its air time to horror films with very few science fiction titles,[citation needed] Mystery fiction Main article: Mystery fiction Works in which science and technology are a dominant theme, but based on current reality, may be considered mainstream fiction, Much of the thriller genre would be included, such as the novels of Tom Clancy or Michael Crichton, or the James Bond films,[81] Modernist works from writers like Kurt Vonnegut, Philip K, Dick, and Stanislaw Lem have focused on speculative or existential perspectives on contemporary reality and are on the borderline between SF and the mainstream,[82] According to Robert J, Sawyer, "Science fiction and mystery have a great deal in common, Both prize the intellectual process of puzzle solving, and both require stories to be plausible and hinge on the way things really do work,"[83] Isaac Asimov, Walter Mosley, and other writers incorporate mystery elements in their science fiction, and vice versa, Superhero fiction Main article: Superhero fiction Superhero fiction is a genre characterized by beings with much higher than usual capability and prowess, generally with a desire or need to help the citizens of their chosen country or world by using his or her powers to defeat natural or superpowered threats, Many superhero fiction characters involve themselves (either intentionally or accidentally) with science fiction and fact, including advanced technologies, alien worlds, time travel, and interdimensional travel; but the standards of scientific plausibility are lower than with actual science fiction, Authors of this genre include Stan Lee (co-creator of Spider-Man, the Fantastic Four, the X-Men, and the Hulk); Marv Wolfman, the creator of Blade for Marvel Comics, and The New Teen Titans for DC Comics; Dean Wesley Smith (Smallville, Spider-Man, and X-Men novels) and Superman writers Roger Stern and Elliot S! Maggin, Fandom and community For more details on this topic, see Science fiction fandom, Science fiction fandom is the "community of the literature of ideas,,, the culture in which new ideas emerge and grow before being released into society at large",[84] Members of this community, "fans", are in contact with each other at conventions or clubs, through print or online fanzines, or on the Internet using web sites, mailing lists, and other resources, SF fandom emerged from the letters column in Amazing Stories magazine, Soon fans began writing letters to each other, and then grouping their comments together in informal publications that became known as fanzines,[85] Once they were in regular contact, fans wanted to meet each other, and they organized local clubs, In the 1930s, the first science fiction conventions gathered fans from a wider area,[86] Conventions, clubs, and fanzines were the dominant form of fan activity, or "fanac", for decades, until the Internet facilitated communication among a much larger population of interested people, Awards For more details on this topic, see List of science fiction awards, Among the most respected awards for science fiction are the Hugo Award, presented by the World Science Fiction Society at Worldcon; the Nebula Award, presented by SFWA and voted on by the community of authors; and the John W, Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel and Theodore Sturgeon Memorial Award for short fiction, One notable award for science fiction films is the Saturn Award, It is presented annually by The Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror Films, There are national awards, like Canada's Aurora Award, regional awards, like the Endeavour Award presented at Orycon for works from the Pacific Northwest, special interest or subgenre awards like the Chesley Award for art or the World Fantasy Award for fantasy, Magazines may organize reader polls, notably the Locus Award, Conventions, clubs, and organizations For more details on this topic, see Science fiction conventions, Pamela Dean reading at Minicon Conventions (in fandom, shortened as "cons"), are held in cities around the world, catering to a local, regional, national, or international membership, General-interest conventions cover all aspects of science fiction, while others focus on a particular interest like media fandom, filking, etc, Most are organized by volunteers in non-profit groups, though most media-oriented events are organized by commercial promoters, The convention's activities are called the "program", which may include panel discussions, readings, autograph sessions, costume masquerades, and other events, Activities that occur throughout the convention are not part of the program; these commonly include a dealer's room, art show, and hospitality lounge (or "con suites"),[87] Conventions may host award ceremonies; Worldcons present the Hugo Awards each year, SF societies, referred to as "clubs" except in formal contexts, form a year-round base of activities for science fiction fans, They may be associated with an ongoing science fiction convention, or have regular club meetings, or both, Most groups meet in libraries, schools and universities, community centers, pubs or restaurants, or the homes of individual members, Long-established groups like the New England Science Fiction Association and the Los Angeles Science Fantasy Society have clubhouses for meetings and storage of convention supplies and research materials,[88] The Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA) was founded by Damon Knight in 1965 as a non-profit organization to serve the community of professional science fiction authors,[70] 24 years after his essay "Unite or Fie!" had led to the organization of the National Fantasy Fan Federation, Fandom has helped incubate related groups, including media fandom,[89] the Society for Creative Anachronism,[90] gaming,[91] filking, and furry fandom,[92] Fanzines and online fandom For more details on this topic, see Science fiction fanzine, The first science fiction fanzine, The Comet, was published in 1930,[93] Fanzine printing methods have changed over the decades, from the hectograph, the mimeograph, and the ditto machine, to modern photocopying, Distribution volumes rarely justify the cost of commercial printing, Modern fanzines are printed on computer printers or at local copy shops, or they may only be sent as email, The best known fanzine (or "'zine") today is Ansible, edited by David Langford, winner of numerous Hugo awards, Other fanzines to win awards in recent years include File 770, Mimosa, and Plokta,[94] Artists working for fanzines have risen to prominence in the field, including Brad W, Foster, Teddy Harvia, and Joe Mayhew; the Hugos include a category for Best Fan Artists,[94] The earliest organized fandom online was the SF Lovers community, originally a mailing list in the late 1970s with a text archive file that was updated regularly,[95] In the 1980s, Usenet groups greatly expanded the circle of fans online, In the 1990s, the development of the World-Wide Web exploded the community of online fandom by orders of magnitude, with thousands and then literally millions of web sites devoted to science fiction and related genres for all media,[88] Most such sites are small, ephemeral, and/or very narrowly focused, though sites like SF Site offer a broad range of references and reviews about science fiction, Fan fiction For more details on this topic, see Fan fiction, Fan fiction, known to aficionados as "fanfic", is non-commercial fiction created by fans in the setting of an established book, film, video game, or television series,[96] This modern meaning of the term should not be confused with the traditional (pre-1970s) meaning of "fan fiction" within the community of fandom, where the term meant original or parody fiction written by fans and published in fanzines, often with members of fandom as characters therein ("faan fiction"), Examples of this would include the Goon Defective Agency stories, written st*rting in 1956 by Irish fan John Berry and published in his and Arthur Thomson's fanzine Retribution, In the last few years, sites have appeared such as Orion's Arm and Galaxiki, which encourage collaborative development of science fiction universes, In some cases, the copyright owners of the books, films, or television series have instructed their lawyers to issue "cease and desist" letters to fans, Science fiction studies For more details on this topic, see Science fiction studies, The study of science fiction, or science fiction studies, is the critical assessment, interpretation, and discussion of science fiction literature, film, new media, fandom, and fan fiction, Science fiction scholars take science fiction as an object of study in order to better understand it and its relationship to science, technology, politics, and culture-at-large, Science fiction studies has a long history dating back to the turn of the 20th century, but it was not until later that science fiction studies solidified as a discipline with the publication of the academic journals Extrapolation (1959), Foundation - The International Review of Science Fiction (1972), and Science Fiction Studies (1973), and the establishment of the oldest organizations devoted to the study of science fiction, the Science Fiction Research Association and the Science Fiction Foundation, in 1970, The field has grown considerably since the 1970s with the establishment of more journals, organizations, and conferences with ties to the science fiction scholarship community, and science fiction degree-granting programs such as those offered by the University of Liverpool and Kansas University, The National Science Foundation has conducted surveys of "Public Attitudes and Public Understanding" of "Science Fiction and Pseudoscience",[97] They write that "Interest in science fiction may affect the way people think about or relate to science,,,,one study found a strong relationship between preference for science fiction novels and support for the space program,,,The same study also found that students who read science fiction are much more likely than other students to believe that contacting extraterrestrial civilizations is both possible and desirable (Bainbridge 1982),[98] Science fiction as serious literature Mary Shelley wrote a number of science fiction novels including Frankenstein, and is treated as a major Romantic writer,[99] Many science fiction works have received widespread critical acclaim including Childhood's End and Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (the inspiration for the movie Blade Runner), A number of respected writers of mainstream literature have written science fiction, including Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four, Anthony Burgess' A Clockwork Orange and Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale, Nobel Laureate Doris Lessing wrote a series of SF novels, Canopus in Argos, and nearly all of Kurt Vonnegut's works contain science fiction premises or themes, The scholar Tom Shippey asks a perennial question of science fiction: "What is its relationship to fantasy fiction, is its readership still dominated by male adolescents, is it a taste which will appeal to the mature but non-eccentric literary mind?"[100] In her much reprinted essay "Science Fiction and Mrs Brown,"[101] the science fiction writer Ursula K, Le Guin has approached an answer by first citing the essay written by the English author Virginia Woolf entitled "Mr Bennett and Mrs Brown" in which she states: I believe that all novels, … deal with character, and that it is to express character – not to preach doctrines, sing songs, or celebrate the glories of the British Empire, that the form of the novel, so clumsy, verbose, and undramatic, so rich, elastic, and alive, has been evolved … The great novelists have brought us to see whatever they wish us to see through some character, Otherwise they would not be novelists, but poets, historians, or pamphleteers, Le Guin argues that these criteria may be successfully applied to works of science fiction and so answers in the affirmative her rhetorical question posed at the beginning of her essay: "Can a science fiction writer write a novel?" Tom Shippey[100] in his essay does not dispute this answer but identifies and discusses the essential differences that exists between a science fiction novel and one written outside the field, To this end, he compares George Orwell's Coming Up for Air with Frederik Pohl and C, M, Kornbluth's The Space Merchants and concludes that the basic building block and distinguishing feature of a science fiction novel is the presence of the novum, a term Darko Suvin adapts from Ernst Bloch and defines as "a discrete piece of information recognizable as not-true, but also as not-unlike-true, not-flatly- (and in the current state of knowledge) impossible",[102] In science fiction the style of writing is often relatively clear and straightforward compared to classical literature, Orson Scott Card, an author of both science fiction and non-SF fiction, has postulated that in science fiction the message and intellectual significance of the work is contained within the story itself and, therefore, there need not be stylistic gimmicks or literary games; but that many writers and critics confuse clarity of language with lack of artistic merit, In Card's words: ,,,a great many writers and critics have based their entire careers on the premise that anything that the general public can understand without mediation is worthless drivel, [,,,] If everybody came to agree that stories should be told this clearly, the professors of literature would be out of job, and the writers of obscure, encoded fiction would be, not honored, but pitied for their impenetrability,"[103] Science fiction author and physicist Gregory Benford has declared that: "SF is perhaps the defining genre of the twentieth century, although its conquering armies are still camped outside the Rome of the literary citadels,"[104] This sense of exclusion was articulated by Jonathan Lethem in an essay published in the Village Voice entitled "Close Encounters: The Squandered Promise of Science Fiction,"[105] Lethem suggests that the point in 1973 when Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow was nominated for the Nebula Award, and was passed over in favor of Arthur C, Clarke's Rendezvous with Rama, stands as "a hidden tombstone marking the death of the hope that SF was about to merge with the mainstream," Among the responses to Lethem was one from the editor of the Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction who asked: "When is it [the SF genre] ever going to realize it can't win the game of trying to impress the mainstream?"[106] On this point the journalist and author David Barnett has remarked:[107] The ongoing, endless war between "literary" fiction and "genre" fiction has well-defined lines in the sand, Genre's foot soldiers think that literary fiction is a collection of meaningless but prettily drawn pictures of the human condition, The literary guard consider genre fiction to be crass, commercial, whizz-bang potboilers, Or so it goes, Barnett, in an earlier essay had pointed to a new development in this "endless war":[108] What do novels about a journey across post-apocalyptic America, a clone waitress rebelling against a future society, a world-girdling pipe of special gas keeping mutant creatures at bay, a plan to rid a colonizable new world of dinosaurs, and genetic engineering in a collapsed civilization have in common? They are all most definitely not science fiction, Literary readers will probably recognise The Road by Cormac McCarthy, one of the sections of Cloud Atlas by David Mitchell, The Gone-Away World by Nick Harkaway, The Stone Gods by Jeanette Winterson and Oryx and Crake by Margaret Atwood from their descriptions above, All of these novels use the tropes of what most people recognize as science fiction, but their authors or publishers have taken great pains to ensure that they are not categorized as such, Science fiction world-wide Although perhaps most developed as a genre and community in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, science fiction is a worldwide phenomenon, Organisations devoted to promotion and even translation in particular countries are commonplace, as are country- or language-specific genre awards, Africa and African diaspora Mohammed Dib, an Algerian writer, wrote a science fiction allegory about his nation's politics, Qui se souvient de la mer ("Who Remembers the Sea?") in 1962,[109] Masimba Musodza, a Zimbabwean author, published MunaHacha Maive Nei? the first science-fiction novel in the Shona language,[110] which also holds the distinction of being the first novel in the Shona language to appear as an ebook first before it came out in print, In South Africa, a movie titled District 9 came out in 2009, an apartheid allegory featuring extraterrestrial life forms, produced by Peter Jackson, African American author, Octavia Butler, contributes to the genre of African Science Fiction, She is the author of the Patternist series, Kindred, Lilith's Brood, and the Parable series,[citation needed] Science fiction examines society through shifting power structures (such as the shift of power from humanity to alien overlords), African science fiction often uses this genre norm to situate slavery and the slave trade as an alien abduction, Commonalities in experiences with unknown languages, customs, and culture lend themselves well to this comparison, The subgenre also commonly employs the mechanism of time travel to examine the effects of slavery and forced emigration on the individual and the family,[citation needed] Asia and the Middle East Main articles: Bengali science fiction, Science fiction in China, and Japanese science fiction Indian science fiction, defined loosely as science fiction by writers of Indian descent, began with the English-language publication of Kylas Chundar Dutt's A Journal of Forty-Eight Hours in the Year 1945 in the Calcutta Literary Gazette (June 6, 1835), Since this story was intended as a political polemic, credit for the first science fiction story is often given to later Bengali authors such as Jagadananda Roy, Hemlal Dutta and the polymath Jagadish Chandra Bose (see Bengali science fiction), Similar traditions exist in Hindi, Marathi, Tamil and English,[111] In English, the modern era of Indian speculative fiction began with the works of authors such as Samit Basu, Payal Dhar, Vandana Singh and Anil Menon, Works such as Amitav Ghosh's The Calcutta Chromosome and Salman Rushdie's Grimus and Boman Desai's The Memory of Elephants are generally classified as magic realist works but make essential use of SF tropes and techniques, Modern science fiction in China mainly depends on the magazine Science Fiction World, Many famous works were published in installments in it originally, including the most successful fiction Three Body, written by Liu Cixin, Chalomot Be'aspamia is an Israeli magazine of short science fiction and fantasy stories, The Prophecies Of Karma, published in 2011, is advertised as the first work of science fiction by an Arabic author, the Libanese writer Nael Gharzeddine, Europe Main articles: Science fiction in Croatia, Czech science fiction and fantasy, French science fiction, Norwegian science fiction, Science fiction in Poland, Romanian science fiction, Science fiction in Russia, Science fiction in Serbia, and Spanish science fiction Germany and Austria Current well-known SF authors from Germany are five-time Kurd-Laßwitz-Award winner Andreas Eschbach, whose books The Carpet Makers and Eine Billion Dollar are big successes, and Frank Schätzing, who in his book The Swarm mixes elements of the science thriller with SF elements to an apocalyptic scenario, The most prominent German-speaking author, according to Die Zeit, is Austrian Herbert W, Franke, In 1920's Germany produced a number of critically acclaimed high-budget science fiction and horror films, Metropolis by director Fritz Lang is credited as one of the most influential science fiction films ever made,[112][113][114] A well known science fiction book series in German is Perry Rhodan, which st*rted in 1961, Having sold over one billion copies (in pulp format), it claims to be the most successful science fiction book series ever written worldwide,[115] France, other Francophone countries, and Québec In the French speaking world, for the most part, the colloquial use of the term sci-fi[116] is an accepted anglicism for the word science fiction, This probably stems from the fact that science fiction writing never expanded to the extent it did in the English world, particularly with the dominance of the United States, Nevertheless, France has made a tremendous contribution to science fiction in its seminal stages of development, Jules Verne, a 19th French novelist known for his pioneering science fiction works(Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, A Journey to the Center of the Earth, From the Earth to the Moon) is the prime representative of the French legacy of science fiction, Although the term "science fiction" is understood in France their penchant for the "weird and wacky" has a long tradition and is sometimes called "le culte du merveilleux", This uniquely French tradition certainly encompasses what the Anglophone world would call French science fiction but also ranges across fairies, Dada-ism and Surrealisme, Some more recent and famous French science fiction novels and short stories include those written by René Barjavel and Robert Merle, for example,[citation needed] In Belgian and French films, science-fiction is represented, but not nearly as much as drama, comedy, or historical film, In Belgian and French comic books, on the other hand, science-fiction is, among other things, a well established (and often pessimistic) genre,[citation needed] Among the notable French science fiction comics, there is Valerian et Laureline by Pierre Christin and Jean-Claude Mézières, a space opera franchise lasting since 1967, Metal Hurlant magazine (known in US as Heavy Metal) was one of the largest contributors to Francophone science-fiction comics, Its major authors include Jean 'Moebius' Giraud, creator of Arzach, Chilean Alejandro Jodorowsky, who created a series of comics, including L'Incal and Les Metabarons, set in Jodoverse, and Enki Bilal with Nikopol Trilogy, Giraud also contributed to French SF animation, collaborating with René Laloux on several animated features, Many artists from neighbouring coutries, such as Spain and Italy, create science fiction and fantasy comics in French aimed at a Franco-Belgian market[citation needed], In the case of Canada's Québec, Élisabeth Vonarburg and other authors developed a related tradition of French-Canadian SF, The Prix Boreal was established in 1979 to honour Canadian science fiction works in French, The Aurora Awards (briefly preceded by the Casper Award) were founded in 1980 to recognise and promote the best works of Canadian science fiction in both French and English, Also, due to Canada's bilingualism and the US publishing almost exclusively in English, translation of science fiction prose into French thrives and runs nearly parallel upon a book's publishing in the original English, A sizeable market also exists within Québec for European-written Francophone science fiction literature, Russia, the Soviet Union and post-Soviet states Main article: Russian science fiction and fantasy Soviet stamp, part of a 1967 series depicting science fiction images, The caption reads: "On the moon, A space fantasy" Although Russians made their first attempts in science fiction long before the Revolution,[117] it was the Soviet era that became the genre's golden age, Soviet writers were prolific,[118] despite being sometimes hampered by state censorship, Early Soviet writers, such as Alexander Belayev, Alexey N, Tolstoy and Vladimir Obruchev, employed Vernian/Wellsian hard science fiction based on scientific predictions,[119] The most notable books of the era include Belayev's, Amphibian Man and Professor Dowell's Head; Tolstoy's Aelita and Engineer Garin's Death Ray, Early Soviet science fiction was influenced by communist ideology and often featured a leftist agenda or anti-capitalist satire,[120][121][122] Those few early Soviet books that challenged the communist worldview and satirized the Soviets, such as Yevgeny Zamyatin's dystopia We or Mikhail Bulgakov's Heart of a Dog and Fatal Eggs, were banned from publishing until 1980s, although they still circulated in fan-made copies, In the second half of the 20th century, a new generation of writers developed a more complex approach, Social science fiction, concerned with philosophy, ethics, utopian and dystopian ideas, became the prevalent subgenre,[123] The breakthrough is considered to have been st*rted by Ivan Yefremov's utopian novel Andromeda Nebula (1957), He was soon followed by brothers Arkady and Boris Strugatsky, who explored darker themes and social satire in their Noon Universe novels, such as Hard to be a God (1964) and Prisoners of Power (1969), as well as in their science fantasy trilogy Monday Begins on Saturday (1964), A good share of Soviet science fiction was aimed at children, Probably the best known[119][124] was Kir Bulychov, who created Alisa Selezneva (1965-2003), a children's space adventure series about a teenage girl from the future, After the fall of the Soviet Union, science fiction in the former Soviet republics is still written mostly in the Russian language, which allows an appeal to a broader audience, Among the most notable post-Soviet authors are H, L, Oldie, Sergey Lukyanenko, Alexander Zorich and Vadim Panov,[125] Oceania Main article: Science fiction in Australia Australia: David G, Hartwell noted that while there is perhaps "nothing essentially Australian about Australian science-fiction", many Australian science-fiction (and fantasy and horror) writers are in fact international English language writers, and their work is commonly published worldwide, This is further explainable by the fact that the Australian inner market is small (with Australian population being around 21 million), and sales abroad are crucial to most Australian writers,[126][127] North America Main articles: Canadian science fiction and Science fiction in the United States Latin America Main article: Science fiction in Latin America Although there is still some controversy as to when science fiction began in Latin America, the earliest works date from the late 19th century, All published in 1875, O Doutor Benignus by the Brazilian Augusto Emílio Zaluar, El Maravilloso Viaje del Sr, Nic-Nac by the Argentinian Eduardo Holmberg, and Historia de un Muerto by the Cuban Francisco Calcagno are three of the earliest novels which appeared in the continent,[128] Up to the 1960s, science fiction was the work of isolated writers who did not identify themselves with the genre, but rather used its elements to criticize society, promote their own agendas or tap into the public's interest in pseudo-sciences, It received a boost of respectability after authors such as Horacio Quiroga and Jorge Luis Borges used its elements in their writings, This, in turn, led to the permanent emergence of science fiction in the 1960s and mid 1970s, notably in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Cuba, Magic realism enjoyed parallel growth in Latin America, with a strong regional emphasis on using the form to comment on social issues, similar to social science fiction and speculative fiction in the English world, Economic turmoil and the suspicious eye of the dictatorial regimes in place reduced the genre's dynamism for the following decade, In the mid-1980s, it became increasingly popular once more, Although led by Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, Latin America now hosts dedicated communities and writers with an increasing use of regional elements to set them apart from English-language science-fiction,[129] See also Fantastic art List of science fiction authors List of science fiction films List of science fiction novels List of science fiction television programs List of science fiction themes List of science fiction and fantasy artists List of science fiction universes Non-Aristotelian logic—use in science fiction Science fiction libraries and museums Sense of wonder Skiffy Transhumanism (a school of thought profoundly inspired by SF) THANKS FOR LOOKING! jmc2 Condition: Comics are in fine condition and come bagged and boarded., Country/Region of Manufacture: United States, Certification Number: FN 6.0, Issue Number: 2 and 3, Certification: Uncertified, Main Character: X-Men, Series: KITTY PRYDE AND WOLVERINE, Grade: 6.0 FN, Publication Date: 1984, Signed: No, Publisher: Marvel

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