☆Fn Marvel 13 Comic Book Lot:conan The Barbarian/conqueror/king,red Sonja,kull☆

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Seller: telemosaic (2,480) 99.2%, Location: Canton, Massachusetts, Ships to: US & many other countries, Item: 232600473101 ☆FN MARVEL 13 COMIC BOOK LOT:CONAN THE BARBARIAN/CONQUEROR/KING,RED SONJA,KULL BAGGED+BOARDED ☆YOU GET:Conan the Destroyer (1985 Movie Comic) ISSUE#1 Conan the Barbarian (1970) Annual #9 Conan the Barbarian (1970 Marvel) # 162,163,164,168,169,177Kull the Conqueror (1971 1st Series) Issue #9Conan the King (1980) # 23, 27Red Sonja (1977 1st Marvel Series) #7,10 Pictures are Stock Photos. Comics are in Fine 6.0 condition. They also come bagged and boarded! ------ Conan the Destroyer (1985 Movie Comic) ISSUE#1 Conan: The Destroyer!" Art by John Buscema. In this official comics adaptation of the movie starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, the mighty Cimmerian is recruited by a malevolent sorceress to embark on an impossible quest to reawaken a long dead god. 32 pages, FC. Cover price $0.75. ------- Conan the Barbarian (1970) Annual #9 ISSUE ANNUAL 9: Wrath of the Shambling God!" Script by Michael Fleisher, art and cover by Ernie Chan. Cover price $1.00. ------ Conan the Barbarian (1970 Marvel) ISSUE 162: Cover art by John Buscema. Destroyer in the Flame starring Conan, Fafnir, and Jergl Zadh (last seen in Conan the Barbarian #152), script by Michael Fleisher, art by John Buscema; Jergl Zadh sends the Brotherhood of the Falcon against Conan, leading Conan to Jergl's own temple intending to take over his body. 36 pgs. Cover price $0.60. Cover price $0.60 ISSUE 163: Cover art by Ernie Chan. Cavern of the Vines of Doom! starring Conan, Fafnir, and Krylxxa (death), script by Michael Fleisher, pencils by John Buscema, inks by Charles Vess; Fafnir rescues a lovely, but odd woman; Taking her home, they meet a race of plant creatures. 36 pgs. Cover price $0.60. ISSUE 164: Cover art by Armando Gil. The Jeweled Sword of Tem starring Conan, Veden Kamal (death), and wizard Maheeva, script by Larry Yakata, art by Gary Kwapisz; Conan seeks a jeweled sword to free a wizard; On the journey, he teaches young Veden how to survive. 36 pgs. Cover price $0.60. Cover price $0.60. ISSUE 168: Cover art by Armando Gil. The Bird-Woman and the Beast! starring Conan, Alhambra, and Villardo, script by Michael Fleisher, art by John Buscema; Conan is reunited with the winged-woman, Alhambra, who is trapped as a circus act. 36 pgs. Cover price $0.60. Cover price $0.60. ISSUE 169: Cover art by John Buscema. Tomb of the Scarlet Mage!, script by Michael Fleisher, pencils by John Buscema, inks by Bob Camp; Conan is led to a demon-blade to defend himself; Then visions guide Conan to where the wizard who led him to the blade is entombed. The letters page contains a statement of ownership--average print run 410,058; average paid circulation 205,751. 36 pgs. Cover price $0.65. Cover price $0.60. ISSUE 177: Cover art by Ernie Chan. Well of Souls!, script by Jim Owsley, pencils by John Buscema, inks by Pablo Marcos; The evil time traveler, Nostume, returns to destroy Tetra, Delmurio and Conan in the bottomless Well of Souls.. Half-page Hulk Hogan wrestling TV ad with art by Gil Kane. Cover price $0.65. ------- Kull the Conqueror (1971 1st Series) ISSUE 9: "Wolfshead." Script by Len Wein, pencils by Marie Severin, inks by John Severin. Adapted from the short story by Robert E. Howard. John Severin cover. Cover price $0.20. ------ Conan the King (1980) ISSUE 23: Why would King Conan protect the killer of his son, Price Conn? There's more here than meets the eye! We'll give you a hint--somebody left a sinister clue to the mystery last issue! Absorb yourself in "Ordeal." Written by Alan Zelenetz, with art by Marc Silvestri and Geof Isherwood. Cover by Mike Kaluta. Cover price $1.00. ISSUE 27: A wizard is searching for a secret talisman of power. But he refuses to tell King Conan what it is or why he needs it! It is a search cloaked in mystery and surrounded by murder! "A Death in Stygia" is written by Alan Zelenetz, with art by Marc Silvestri and Geof Isherwood. Cover by Mike Kaluta. Cover price $1.00. ------- Red Sonja (1977 1st Marvel Series) ISSUE 7: Throne of Blood!" Script by Roy Thomas and Clara Noto, art and cover by Frank Thorne. Thor stars in a one-page Hostess ad, "The Ding-a-Ling Family." Cover price $0.35. ISSUE 10: "Red Lace" (part 1). Script by Roy Thomas and Clair Noto, art and cover by Frank Thorne. One-page Hostess ad, "Spider-Man Meets the Home Wrecker." Cover price $0.35. SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Conan the BarbarianFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor other uses, see Conan the Barbarian (disambiguation), This article, in some cases where it cites books, cites its sources but does not provide page references, You can help to improve it by introducing citations that are more precise, (November 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Conan the BarbarianConan9,pngIllustration of Conan by Mark SchultzFirst appearanceWeird Tales (December 1932)Created byRobert E, HowardPortrayed byArnold Schwarzenegger (Film)Michael Donovan (Animation)Phil Hayes (Animation)Ralf Möller (Live-Action television)Jason Momoa (Film)InformationGenderMaleNationalityCimmerianConan the Barbarian (also known as Conan the Cimmerian) is a fictional sword and sorcery hero who originated in pulp-fiction magazines and has since been adapted to books, comics, several films (including Conan the Barbarian and Conan the Destroyer), television programs (cartoon and live-action), video games, role-playing games, and other media, The character was created by writer Robert E, Howard in 1932 in a series of fantasy stories published in Weird Tales magazine,Contents [hide] 1Publication history2Setting3Personality and character3,1Appearance3,2Abilities3,3Influences4Original Robert E, Howard Conan stories4,1Conan stories published in Weird Tales4,2Conan stories published in Fantasy Fan magazine4,3Conan stories not published in Howard's lifetime4,4Unfinished Conan stories by Howard4,5Other Conan-related material by Howard5Book editions6Conan chronologies7Media7,1Films7,1,1Conan the Barbarian (1982) and Conan the Destroyer (1984)7,1,2Conan the Barbarian (2011)7,1,3The Legend of Conan7,2Television7,3Comics7,4Games7,4,1Video games7,4,2Collectible card games7,4,3Board games7,4,4Role-playing games7,4,5Play-by-mail games8Characters8,1Characters with prominent roles in Conan prose fiction8,2Characters with prominent roles only in Conan comic-book fiction8,3Characters with prominent roles only in Conan movies9Copyright and trademark dispute10References11Further reading12External linksPublication history[edit]Conan the Barbarian was created by Robert E, Howard in a series of fantasy stories published in Weird Tales in 1932,[1] For months, Howard had been in search of a new character to market to the burgeoning pulp outlets of the early 1930s, In October 1931, he submitted the short story "People of the Dark" to Clayton Publications' new magazine, Strange Tales of Mystery and Terror (June 1932), "People of the Dark" is a remembrance story of "past lives", and in its first-person narrative the protagonist describes one of his previous incarnations; Conan is a black-haired barbarian hero who swears by a deity called Crom, Some Howard scholars believe this Conan to be a forerunner of the more famous character,[2]In February 1932, Howard vacationed at a border town on the lower Rio Grande, During this trip, he further conceived the character of Conan and also wrote the poem "Cimmeria", much of which echoes specific passages in Plutarch's Lives,[3][4] According to some scholars, Howard's conception of Conan and the Hyborian Age may have originated in Thomas Bulfinch's The Outline of Mythology (1913) which inspired Howard to "coalesce into a coherent whole his literary aspirations and the strong physical, autobiographical elements underlying the creation of Conan",[2]Having digested these prior influences after he returned from his trip, Howard rewrote a rejected story, "By This Axe I Rule!" (May 1929), replacing his existing character Kull of Atlantis with his new hero, and retitling it "The Phoenix on the Sword", Howard also wrote "The Frost-Giant's Daughter", inspired by the Greek myth of Daphne,[citation needed] and submitted both stories to Weird Tales magazine, Although "The Frost-Giant's Daughter" was rejected, the magazine accepted "The Phoenix on the Sword" after it received the requested polishing,[2]"The Phoenix on the Sword" appeared in Weird Tales cover-dated December 1932, Editor Farnsworth Wright subsequently prompted Howard to write an 8,000-word essay for personal use detailing "the Hyborian Age", the fictional setting for Conan, Using this essay as his guideline, Howard began plotting "The Tower of the Elephant", a new Conan story that was the first to truly integrate his new conception of the Hyborian world,[2]The publication and success of "The Tower of the Elephant" spurred Howard to write many more Conan stories for Weird Tales, By the time of Howard's suicide in 1936, he had written 21 complete stories, 17 of which had been published, as well as a number of unfinished fragments,[2]Following Howard's death, the copyright of the Conan stories passed through several hands, Eventually, under the guidance of L, Sprague de Camp and Lin Carter, the stories were edited, revised, and sometimes rewritten, For roughly 40 years, the original versions of Howard's Conan stories remained out of print, In 1977, the publisher Berkley Books issued three volumes using the earliest published form of the texts from Weird Tales,[citation needed] but these failed to displace the edited versions, In the 1980s and 1990s, the copyright holders of the Conan franchise permitted Howard's stories to go out of print entirely,[citation needed] while continuing to sell Conan works by other authors,In 2000, the British publisher Gollancz Science Fiction issued a two-volume, complete edition of Howard's Conan stories as part of its Fantasy Masterworks imprint, which included several stories that had never seen print in their original form, The Gollancz edition mostly used the versions of the stories as published in Weird Tales,[5]The two volumes were combined and the stories resorted into chronological order as The Complete Chronicles of Conan: Centenary Edition (Gollancz Science Fiction, 2006; edited and with an Afterword by Steve Jones),In 2003, another British publisher, Wandering st*r Books,[6] made an effort both to restore Howard's original manuscripts and to provide a more scholarly and historical view of the Conan stories, It published hardcover editions in England, which were republished in the United States by the Del Rey imprint of Ballantine Books, The first book, Conan of Cimmeria: Volume One (1932–1933) (2003; published in the US as The Coming of Conan the Cimmerian) includes Howard's notes on his fictional setting, as well as letters and poems concerning the genesis of his ideas, This was followed by Conan of Cimmeria: Volume Two (1934) (2004; published in the US as The Bloody Crown of Conan) and Conan of Cimmeria: Volume Three (1935–1936) (2005; published in the US as The Conquering Sword of Conan), These three volumes combined include all of the original, unedited Conan stories,Setting[edit] A map of Robert E, Howard's Hyborian Age,Main article: Hyborian AgeThe various stories of Conan the Barbarian occur in the fictional "Hyborian Age", set after the destruction of Atlantis and before the rise of the known ancient civilizations, This is a specific epoch in a fictional timeline created by Howard for many of the low fantasy tales of his artificial legendary,[7]The reasons behind the invention of the Hyborian Age were perhaps commercial: Howard had an intense love for history and historical dramas; however, at the same time, he recognized the difficulties and the time-consuming research work needed in maintaining historical accuracy - and moreover, the poorly-stocked libraries in the rural part of Texas where Howard lived just did not have the material needed for such historical research, By conceiving a timeless setting – "a vanished age" – and by carefully choosing names that resembled human history, Howard shrewdly avoided the problem of historical anachronisms and the need for lengthy exposition,[2]According to "The Phoenix on the Sword", the adventures of Conan take place "Between the years when the oceans drank Atlantis and the gleaming cities, and the years of the rise of the Sons of Aryas,"[8]Personality and character[edit] This section possibly contains original research, Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations, Statements consisting only of original research should be removed, (November 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Conan is a Cimmerian, From Robert E, Howard's writings (The Hyborian Age among others) it is known that the Cimmerians were based on the Celts, He was born on a battlefield and is the son of a village blacksmith, Conan matured quickly as a youth and, by age fifteen, he was already a respected warrior who had participated in the destruction of the Aquilonian outpost of Venarium,[9] After its demise, he was struck by wanderlust and began the adventures chronicled by Howard, encountering skulking monsters, evil wizards, tavern wenches, and beautiful princesses, He roamed throughout the Hyborian Age nations as a thief, outlaw, mercenary, and pirate,[10] As he grew older, he began commanding larger units of men and escalating his ambitions, In his forties, he seized the crown of the tyrannical king of Aquilonia, the most powerful kingdom of the Hyborian Age, having strangled the previous ruler on the steps of the throne,[11] Conan's adventures often result in him performing heroic feats, though his motivation for doing so is largely to protect his own survival or for personal gain,A conspicuous element of Conan's character is his chivalry, He is extremely reluctant to fight women (even when they fight him) and has a strong tendency to save damsels in distress, In "Jewels of Gwahlur", he has to make a split-second decision whether to save the dancing girl Muriela or the chest of priceless gems which he spent months in seeking, and with no hesitation he saves the girl and lets the treasure be irrevocably lost, In "The Black Stranger", Conan saves the exile Zingaran Lady Belesa at considerable risk to himself, giving her as a parting gift a fortune in gems big enough to have a comfortable wealthy life in Zingara, and asking for no sexual favors in return, Reviewer Jennifer Bard also noted[12] that when Conan is in a pirate crew or a robber gang led by another male, his tendency is to subvert and undermine the leader's authority, and eventually supplant (and often, kill) him (e,g, "Pool of the Black One", "A Witch Shall be Born", "Shadows in the Moonlight"), Conversely, in "Queen of the Black Coast" it is noted that Conan "generally agreed to her [Belit's] plans, Hers was the mind that directed their raids, his the arm that carried out her ideas, It was a good life," And at the end of "Red Nails" Conan and Valeria seem to be headed towards a reasonably amicable piratical partnership",George Baxter noted that "Conan's recorded history mentions him as being prominently involved, at one time or another, with four different pirate fraternities, on two different seas, as well being a noted leader of land robbers at three different locales, Yet we hardly ever see him involved in, well, robbing people, To be sure, he speaks about it often and with complete candor: "We [Kozaks] took to plundering the outlying dominions of Koth, Zamora and Turan impartially" he says in "Shadows in the Moonlight", But that was before the story began, And "We're bound for waters where the seaports are fat, and the merchant ships are crammed with plunder!" Conan declares at the end of "The Pool of the Black One", But this plundering will take place after the story ends, When we see Conan onstage, we see him do very many other things: He intervenes in the politics and dynastic struggles of various kingdoms; he hunts for hidden treasure; he explores desert islands and lost cities; he fights countless terrible monsters and evil sorcerers; he saves countless beautiful women and makes them fall in love with him… What we virtually never see Conan do is engage in the proper business of an armed robber, on land or by sea - which is to attack people who never threatened or provoked you, take away their possessions by main force, and run your sword through them if they dare to resist, A bit messy business, that, Armchair adventurers, who like to enjoy a good yarn in the perfect safety and comfort of their suburban homes, might not have liked to read it,[13]An aspect of his character, which prevails within his personality and frames it above else he may go through in his adventures, is the deep sense of remaining 'the outsider', And which regardless of how involved and integrated in the circles of different realms and societies he may be, where always a swordsman skills are employed if not welcome, and his dexter or erring use of it and his positions experience to navigate through others own societies, Conan invariably remains stranded, an observer however also a player and even supreme authority (as King of one of those kingdoms) which sets him apart aloof ever to ponder in deep melancholic bouts, however briefly from time to time before been thrown back into the tales stories, on which is his own place in his Age as an orphan of another race always regarded by others as uncouth barbarian after he lost his own people and no way back home, A survivor forever to wander, and always acutely aware that nothing in his adventures filled life, will give him respite or remain long to be a substitute home and tribe or clan, sense of belonging, Which even when in the mirth of love relationships his heart may be most in, his mates sense and find inconsolable within him, These aspects of character development Howard tapped in to brine his character with, which had a huge appeal and echo to his current day and alienated generation of the Great Depression years and beyond, as America was still a country full of old and new immigrants during very uncertain and uprooting times, touched in an universal archetype and ethos which also is an eternal stage of Human experience and development, as all know too well Youth goes through, and from which Howard's character and stories draw in its main sympathy and interest, along the pull of the more or less 'Good savage' escapist stories, from the general Public and particularly in that age group that also touches and evokes in other ages readers,Appearance[edit]Hither came Conan, the Cimmerian, black-haired, sullen-eyed, sword in hand, a thief, a reaver, a slayer, with gigantic melancholies and gigantic mirth, to tread the jeweled thrones of the Earth under his sandalled feet,"Robert E, Howard, The Phoenix on the Sword, 1932,Conan has "sullen", "smoldering" and "volcanic" blue eyes with a black "square-cut mane", Howard once describes him as having a hairy chest and, while comic book interpretations often portray Conan as wearing a loincloth or other minimalist clothing to give him a more barbaric image, Howard describes the character as wearing whatever garb is typical for the land and culture in which Conan finds himself, Howard never gave a strict height or weight for Conan in a story, only describing him in loose terms like "giant" and "massive",[14] In the tales, no human is ever described as being stronger than Conan, although several are mentioned as taller (such as the strangler Baal-pteor) or of larger bulk, In a letter to P, Schuyler Miller and John D, Clark in 1936, only three months before Howard's death, Conan is described as standing 6 feet (1,8 m) and weighing 180 pounds (82 kg) when he takes part in an attack on Venarium at only 14 years old, though being far from fully grown, Conan himself says in "Beyond the Black River" that he had ",,,not yet seen 15 snows",Although Conan is muscular, Howard frequently compares his agility and way of moving to that of a panther (see, for instance, "Jewels of Gwahlur", "Beyond the Black River" or "Rogues in the House"), His skin is frequently characterized as bronzed from constant exposure to the sun, In his younger years, he is often depicted wearing a light chain shirt and a horned helmet, though appearances vary with different stories,During his reign as king of Aquilonia, Conan was,,, a tall man, mightily shouldered and deep of chest, with a massive corded neck and heavily muscled limbs, He was clad in silk and velvet, with the royal lions of Aquilonia worked in gold upon his rich jupon, and the crown of Aquilonia shone on his square-cut black mane; but the great sword at his side seemed more natural to him than the regal accoutrements, His brow was low and broad, his eyes a volcanic blue that smoldered as if with some inner fire, His dark, scarred, almost sinister face was that of a fighting-man, and his velvet garments could not conceal the hard, dangerous lines of his limbs,[15]Howard imagined the Cimmerians as a pre-Celtic people with mostly black hair and blue or grey eyes, Ethnically the Cimmerians to which Conan belongs are descendants of the Atlanteans, though they do not remember their ancestry, In his fictional historical essay "The Hyborian Age", Howard describes how the people of Atlantis – the land where his character King Kull originated – had to move east after a great cataclysm changed the face of the world and sank their island, settling where Ireland and Scotland would eventually be located, Thus they are (in Howard's work) the ancestors of the Irish and Scottish (the Celtic Gaels) and not the Picts, the other ancestor of modern Scots who also appear in Howard's work, In the same work, Howard also described how the Cimmerians eventually moved south and east after the age of Conan (presumably in the vicinity of the Black Sea, where the historical Cimmerians dwelt),Abilities[edit] This section does not cite any sources, Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Despite his brutish appearance, Conan uses his brains as well as his brawn, The Cimmerian is a highly skilled warrior, possibly without peer with a sword, but his travels have given him vast experience in other trades, especially as a thief, He is also a talented commander, tactician, and strategist, as well as a born leader, In addition, Conan speaks many languages, including advanced reading and writing abilities: in certain stories, he is able to recognize, or even decipher, certain ancient or secret signs and writings; for example, in "Jewels of Gwahlur" Howard states, "In his roaming about the world the giant adventurer had picked up a wide smattering of knowledge, particularly including the speaking and reading of many alien tongues, Many a sheltered scholar would have been astonished at the Cimmerian's linguistic abilities," He also has incredible stamina, enabling him to go without sleep for a few days, In "A Witch Shall be Born", Conan fights armed men until he is overwhelmed, captured, and crucified, and goes a night and a day without water, but still possesses the strength to pull the nails from his feet, then to hoist himself into a horse's saddle and ride ten miles,Another noticeable trait is his sense of humor, largely absent in the comics and movies, but very much a part of Howard's original vision of the character (particularly apparent in "Xuthal of the Dusk", also known as "The Slithering Shadow,") His sense of humor can also be rather grimly ironic, as was demonstrated by how he meted out justice to the treacherous - and ill-fated - innkeeper Aram Baksh in "Shadows in Zamboula,"He is a loyal friend to those true to him, with a barbaric code of conduct that often marks him as more honorable than the more sophisticated people he meets in his travels, Indeed, his straightforward nature and barbarism are constants in all the tales,Conan is a formidable armed and unarmed combatant, With his back to the wall, Conan is capable of engaging and killing opponents by the score, This is seen in several stories, such as "Queen of the Black Coast", "The Scarlet Citadel" and "A Witch Shall Be Born", Conan is not superhuman, though; he needed the providential help of Zelata's wolf to defeat four Nemedian soldiers in the story The Hour of the Dragon, Some of his hardest victories have come from fighting single opponents of inhuman strength: one such as Thak, the ape man from "Rogues in the House", or the strangler Baal-Pteor in "Shadows in Zamboula", Conan is far from untouchable and has been captured and defeated several times (on one occasion knocking himself out drunkenly running into a wall),Influences[edit]Main article: Robert E, HowardHoward frequently corresponded with H, P, Lovecraft, and the two would sometimes insert references or elements of each other's settings in their works, Later editors reworked many of the original Conan stories by Howard, thus diluting this connection, Nevertheless, many of Howard's unedited Conan stories are arguably part of the Cthulhu Mythos,[16] Additionally, many of the Conan stories by Howard, de Camp and Carter used geographical place names from Clark Ashton Smith's Hyperborean Cycle,Original Robert E, Howard Conan stories[edit] Cover of Weird Tales (May 1934) depicting Conan and Bêlit in Queen of the Black Coast, one of Robert E, Howard's original Conan stories,Conan stories published in Weird Tales[edit]"The Phoenix on the Sword" (novelette; vol, 20, #6, December 1932)"The Scarlet Citadel" (novelette; vol, 21, #1, January 1, 1933)"The Tower of the Elephant" (novelette; vol, 21, #3, March 1933)"Black Colossus" (novelette; vol, 21, #6, June 1933)"The Slithering Shadow" (novelette; vol, 22, #3, September 1933, alternate title "Xuthal of the Dusk")"The Pool of the Black One" (novelette; vol, 22, #4, October 1933)"Rogues in the House" (novelette; vol, 23, #1, January 1934)"Iron Shadows in the Moon" (novelette; vol, 23, #4, April 1934, published as "Shadows in the Moonlight")"Queen of the Black Coast" (novelette; vol, 23, #5, May 1934)"The Devil in Iron" (novelette; vol, 24, #2, August 1934)"The People of the Black Circle" (novella; vol, 24, #3–5, September–November 1934)"A Witch Shall Be Born" (novelette; vol, 24, #6, December 1934)"Jewels of Gwahlur" (novelette; vol, 25, #3, March 1935, author's original title "The Servants of Bit-Yakin")"Beyond the Black River" (novella; vol, 25, #5–6, May–June 1935)"Shadows in Zamboula" (novelette; vol, 26, #5, November 1935, author's original title "The Man-Eaters of Zamboula")"The Hour of the Dragon" (novel; vol, 26, #6 & vol, 27, #1–4, December 1935, January–April 1936)"Red Nails" (novella; vol, 28, #1–3, July, September, October 1936)Conan stories published in Fantasy Fan magazine[edit]"Gods of the North" (March 1934) – published as The Frost-Giant's Daughter in The Coming of Conan, 1953,[17]Conan stories not published in Howard's lifetime[edit]"The God in the Bowl" – Published in Space Science Fiction, Sep, 1952,"The Black Stranger" – Published in Fantasy Magazine, Feb, 1953,"The Vale of Lost Women" – Published in The Magazine of Horror, Spring 1967,Unfinished Conan stories by Howard[edit]"Drums of Tombalku" – Fragment, Published in Conan the Adventurer, 1966,"The Hall of the Dead" – Synopsis, Published in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, February 1967,"The Hand of Nergal" – Fragment, Published in Conan, 1967,"The Snout in the Dark" – Fragment, Published in Conan of Cimmeria, 1969,A number of untitled synopses for Conan stories also exist,Other Conan-related material by Howard[edit]"Wolves Beyond the Border" – A non-Conan story set in Conan's world, Fragment, Published in 1967 in Conan the Usurper"The Hyborian Age" – An essay written in 1932, Published in 1938 in The Hyborian Age,"Cimmeria" – A poem written in 1932, Published in 1965 in The Howard Collector,Book editions[edit]Main article: Conan (books) Conan the Usurper (1967), Cover art by Frank Frazetta,The character of Conan has proven durably popular, resulting in Conan stories by later writers such as Poul Anderson, Leonard Carpenter, Lin Carter, L, Sprague de Camp, Roland J, Green, John C, Hocking, Robert Jordan, Sean A, Moore, Björn Nyberg, Andrew J, Offutt, Steve Perry, John Maddox Roberts, Harry Turtledove, and Karl Edward Wagner, Some of these writers have finished incomplete Conan manuscripts by Howard, Others were created by rewriting Howard stories which originally featured entirely different characters from entirely different milieus, Most, however, are completely original works, In total, more than fifty novels and dozens of short stories featuring the Conan character have been written by authors other than Howard, Tales of Conan (Gnome Press, 1955), Cover art by Ed Emshwiller,The Gnome Press edition (1950–1957) was the first hardcover collection of Howard's Conan stories, including all the original Howard material known to exist at the time, some left unpublished in his lifetime, The later volumes contain some stories rewritten by L, Sprague de Camp (like "The Treasure of Tranicos"), including several non-Conan Howard stories, mostly historical exotica situated in the Levant at the time of the Crusades, which he turned into Conan yarns, The Gnome edition also issued the first Conan story written by an author other than Howard — the final volume published, which is by Björn Nyberg and revised by de Camp,The Lancer/Ace editions (1966–1977), under the direction of de Camp and Lin Carter, were the first comprehensive paperbacks, compiling the material from the Gnome Press series together in chronological order with all the remaining original Howard material, including that left unpublished in his lifetime and fragments and outlines, These were completed by de Camp and Carter, The series also included Howard stories originally featuring other protagonists that were rewritten by de Camp as Conan stories, New Conan stories written entirely by de Camp and Carter were added as well, Lancer Books went out of business before bringing out the entire series, the publication of which was completed by Ace Books, Eight of the eventual twelve volumes published featured dynamic cover paintings by Frank Frazetta that, for many fans,[who?] presented the definitive, iconic impression of Conan and his world, For decades to come, most other portrayals of the Cimmerian and his imitators were heavily influenced by the cover paintings of this series,[citation needed]Most editions after the Lancer/Ace series have been of either the original Howard stories or Conan material by others, but not both, The exception are the Ace Maroto editions (1978–1981), which include both new material by other authors and older material by Howard, though the latter are some of the non-Conan tales rewritten as Conan stories by de Camp, Notable later editions of the original Howard Conan stories include the Donald M, Grant editions (1974–1989, incomplete); Berkley editions (1977); Gollancz editions (2000–2006), and Wandering st*r/Del Rey editions (2003–2005), Later series of new Conan material include the Bantam editions (1978–1982) and Tor editions (1982–2004),Conan chronologies[edit]Main article: Conan chronologiesIn an attempt to provide a coherent timeline which fit the numerous adventures of Conan penned by Robert E, Howard and later writers, various "Conan chronologies" have been prepared by many people from the 1930s onward, Note that no consistent timeline has yet accommodated every single Conan story, The following are the principal theories that have been advanced over the years,Miller/Clark chronology – A Probable Outline of Conan's Career (1936) was the first effort to put the tales in chronological order, Completed by P, Schuyler Miller and John Drury Clark, the chronology was later revised by Clark and L, Sprague de Camp in An Informal Biography of Conan the Cimmerian (1952),Robert Jordan chronology – A Conan Chronology by Robert Jordan (1987) was a new chronology written by Conan writer Robert Jordan that included all written Conan material up to that point, It was heavily influenced by the Miller/Clark/de Camp chronologies, though it departed from them in a number of idiosyncratic instances,William Galen Gray chronology – Timeline of Conan's Journeys (1997, rev, 2004), was fan William Galen Gray's attempt to create "a chronology of all the stories, both Howard and pastiche," Drawing on the earlier Miller/Clark and Jordan chronologies, it represents the ultimate expression of their tradition to date,Joe Marek chronology – Joe Marek's chronology is limited to stories written (or devised) by Howard, though within that context it is essentially a revision of the Miller/Clark tradition to better reflect the internal evidence of the stories and avoid forcing Conan into what he perceives as a "mad dash" around the Hyborian world within timeframes too rapid to be credible,Dale Rippke chronology – The Darkstorm Conan Chronology (2003) was a completely revised and heavily researched chronology, radically repositioning a number of stories and including only those stories written or devised by Howard, The Dark Horse comic series follows this chronology,Media[edit]See also: Adaptations of works by Robert E, HowardFilms[edit]Conan the Barbarian (1982) and Conan the Destroyer (1984)[edit]Main articles: Conan the Barbarian (1982 film) and Conan the Destroyer Conan the Barbarian (1982) poster,The very first Conan cinematic project was planned by Edward Summer, Summer envisioned a series of Conan films, much like the James Bond franchise, He outlined six stories for this film series, but none were ever made, An original screenplay by Summer and Roy Thomas was written, but their lore-authentic screen story was never filmed, However, the resulting film, Conan the Barbarian (1982), was a combination of director John Milius' ideas and plots from Conan stories (written also by Howard's successors, notably Lin Carter and L, Sprague de Camp), The addition of Nietzschean motto and Conan's life philosophy were crucial for bringing the spirit of Howard's literature to the screen,The plot of Conan the Barbarian (1982) begins with Conan being enslaved by the Vanir raiders of Thulsa Doom, a malevolent warlord who is responsible for the slaying of Conan's parents and the genocide of his people, Later, Thulsa Doom becomes a cult leader of a religion that worships Set, a Snake God, The vengeful Conan, the archer Subotai and the thief Valeria set out on a quest to rescue a princess held captive by Thulsa Doom, The film was directed by John Milius and produced by Dino De Laurentiis, The character of Conan was played by Arnold Schwarzenegger and was his break-through role as an actor,[18]This film was followed by a less popular sequel, Conan the Destroyer in 1984,[19] This sequel was a more typical fantasy-genre film and was even less faithful to Howard's Conan stories, being just a picaresque story of an assorted bunch of adventurers,The third film in the Conan trilogy was planned for 1987 to be titled Conan the Conqueror, The director was to be either Guy Hamilton or John Guillermin, Since Arnold Schwarzenegger was committed to the film Predator and De Laurentiis's contract with the st*r had expired after his obligation to Red Sonja and Raw Deal, he wasn't keen to negotiate a new one; thus the third Conan film sank into development hell, The script was eventually turned into Kull the Conqueror,Conan the Barbarian (2011)[edit]Main article: Conan the Barbarian (2011 film)There were rumors in the late 1990s of another Conan sequel, a story about an older Conan titled King Conan: Crown of Iron, but Schwarzenegger's election in 2003 as governor of California ended this project,[20] Warner Bros, spent seven years trying to get the project off the ground, However, in June 2007 the rights reverted to Paradox Entertainment, though all drafts made under Warner remained with them, In August 2007, it was announced that Millennium Films had acquired the rights to the project, Production was aimed for a Spring 2006 st*rt, with the intention of having stories more faithful to the Robert E, Howard creation,[21] In June 2009, Millennium hired Marcus Nispel to direct,[22] In January 2010, Jason Momoa was selected for the role of Conan,[23] The film was released in August 2011, and met poor critical reviews and box office results,The Legend of Conan[edit]In 2012, producers Chris Morgan and Frederick Malmberg announced plans for a sequel to the 1982 Conan the Barbarian titled The Legend of Conan, with Arnold Schwarzenegger reprising his role as Conan,[24][25][26] A year later, Deadline reported that Andrea Berloff would write the script,[27] Years passed since the initial announcement as Schwarzenegger worked on other films, but as late as 2016, Schwarzenegger affirmed his enthusiasm for making the film, saying, "Interest is high , , , but we are not rushing,"[28][29] The script has been finished, and Schwarzenegger and Morgan are now meeting with possible directors,[28][29] In April 2017, producer Chris Morgan stated that Universal had dropped the project, although there was a possibility of a TV show, The story of the film was supposed to be set 30 years after the first, with some inspiration from Clint Eastwood's Unforgiven,[30]Television[edit]There have been three television series related to Conan:Conan the Adventurer is an animated television series produced by Jetlag Productions and Sunbow Productions that debuted on October 1, 1992, ran for 64 episodes and concluded exactly two years later, on October 1, 1994, The series involved Conan chasing Serpent Men across the world in an attempt to release his parents from eternal imprisonment as living statues,Conan and the Young Warriors is an animated television series that premiered in 1994 and ran for 13 episodes, DiC Entertainment produced the show and CBS aired this series as a spin-off to the previous animated series, This cartoon took place after the finale of Conan the Adventurer with Wrath-Amon vanquished and Conan's family returned to life from living stone, Conan soon finds that the family of one of his friends are being turned into wolves by an evil sorceress and he must train three warriors in order to aid him in rescuing them,Conan the Adventurer is a live-action television series that premiered on September 22, 1997, and ran for 22 episodes, It st*rred German bodybuilder Ralf Möller as Conan and Danny Woodburn as his sidekick Otli, The storyline was quite different from the Conan lore of Howard, In this adaptation, Conan is a pleasant and jovial person, Also in this version, Conan is not a loner but one member of a merry band of adventurers,Comics[edit] Tower of the Elephant comic by R, Thomas, J, Buscema and A, Alcala,Main article: Conan (comics)See also: Conan (Marvel Comics) and Conan (Dark Horse Comics)Conan the Barbarian has appeared in comics nearly non-stop since 1970, The comics are arguably, apart from the books, the vehicle that had the greatest influence on the longevity and popularity of the character, Aside from an earlier and unofficial Conan comic published in Mexico,[31] the two main publishers of Conan comics have been Marvel Comics and Dark Horse Comics, Marvel Comics launched Conan the Barbarian (1970–1993) and the classic Savage Sword of Conan (1974–1995), Dark Horse launched their Conan series in 2003, Dark Horse Comics is currently publishing compilations of the 1970s Marvel Comics series in trade paperback format,Former President of the United States, Barack Obama, is a collector of Conan the Barbarian comic books and a big fan of the character[32] and appeared as a character in a comic book called Barack the Barbarian from Devil's Due,[33][34][35]Marvel Comics introduced a relatively lore-faithful version of Conan the Barbarian in 1970 with Conan the Barbarian, written by Roy Thomas and illustrated by Barry Windsor-Smith, Smith was succeeded by penciller John Buscema, while Thomas continued to write for many years, Later writers included J,M, DeMatteis, Bruce Jones, Michael Fleisher, Doug Moench, Jim Owsley, Alan Zelenetz, Chuck Dixon and Don Kraar, In 1974, Conan the Barbarian series spawned the more adult-oriented, black-and-white comics magazine Savage Sword of Conan, written by Thomas with art mostly by Buscema or Alfredo Alcala, Marvel also published several graphic novels st*rring the character[citation needed], and a handbook with detailed information about the Hyborian world,The Marvel Conan stories were also adapted as a newspaper comic strip which appeared daily and Sunday from 4 September 1978 to 12 April 1981, Originally written by Roy Thomas and illustrated by John Buscema, the strip was continued by several different Marvel artists and writers,Dark Horse Comics began their comic adaptation of the Conan saga in 2003, Entitled simply Conan, the series was first written by Kurt Busiek and pencilled by Cary Nord, Tim Truman replaced Busiek when Busiek signed an exclusive contract with DC Comics; however, Busiek issues were sometimes used for filler, This series is an interpretation of the original Conan material by Robert E, Howard with no connection whatsoever to the earlier Marvel comics or any Conan story not written or envisioned by Howard supplemented by wholly original material,A second series, Conan the Cimmerian was released in 2008 by Tim Truman (writer) and Tomás Giorello (artist), The series ran for twenty-six issues, including an introductory "zero" issue,Dark Horse's third series, Conan: Road of Kings, began in December 2010 by Roy Thomas (writer) and Mike Hawthorne (artist) and ran for twelve issues,A fourth series, Conan the Barbarian, began in February 2012 by Brian Wood (writer) and Becky Cloonan (artist), It ran for twenty-five issues, and expanded on Robert E, Howard's Queen of the Black Coast,A fifth series, Conan the Avenger, began in April 2014 by Fred Van Lente (writer) and Brian Ching (artist), It ran for twenty-five issues, and expanded on Robert E, Howard's The Snout in the Dark and A Witch Shall Be Born,Dark Horse's sixth series, Conan the Slayer, began in July 2016 by Cullen Bunn (writer) and Sergio Dávila (artist),Games[edit]See also: List of games based on Conan the BarbarianVideo games[edit]Seven video games have been released based on the Conan mythos,In 1984, Datasoft released Conan: Hall of Volta for the Apple II, Atari 800, and the Commodore 64,In 1991, Mindscape released Conan: The Mysteries of Time for NES, a Commodore 64 port by System 3,In 1991, Virgin Games and Synergistic released Conan: The Cimmerian for Amiga and DOS,In 2004, TDK Mediactive released Conan, a third-person action game for Windows and consoles,In 2007, THQ and Nihilistic released Conan, a third-person action game for PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360,In 2008, Funcom released Age of Conan, a MMORPG, on May 20 in the US and May 23 in Europe,A RPG game titled "Conan: The Tower of the Elephant" was released for the iOS around the time of the release of the movie Conan the Barbarian as a promotion, The game is based on the short story of the same name,On January 31, 2017, video game company Funcom released a new Conan Title, Conan Exiles for PS4, Xbox One and PC, The title is an open world survival game, The game was released in Early Access, and is planned to be finished by 2nd quarter 2018,[36]Collectible card games[edit]In 2006, Comic Images released the Conan Collectible Card Game designed by Jason Robinette,Board games[edit]In 2009, Fantasy Flight Games released the Age of Conan strategy board game, depicting warfare between the Hyborian nations in the Conan's adventures,In 2016, Monolith Board Games LLC will release a new boardgame with miniatures directly based on Howard's short stories, Conan (previously known as Conan: Hyborian Quests) pits one player, controlling the evil forces, against 2-4 other players controlling Conan and his companions,Role-playing games[edit]TSR, Inc, signed a license agreement in 1984 to publish Conan-related gaming material:[37]Two modules for Advanced Dungeons & Dragons:CB1 Conan Unchained! (1984)CB2 Conan Against Darkness! (1984)The Conan Role-Playing Game (1985), with 3 official game adventures:CN1 Conan the Buccaneer (1985)CN2 Conan the Mercenary (1985)CN3 Conan Triumphant (1985)Three Endless Quest books by TSR, published in the eighties, allow the reader to play the role of Conan,In 1988 Steve Jackson Games acquired a Conan license and st*rted publishing Conan solo adventures for its GURPS generic system of rules as of 1988 and a GURPS Conan core rulebook in 1989:GURPS Conan: Beyond Thunder River (1988, solo adventure)GURPS Conan (1989, core rulebook)GURPS Conan and the Queen of the Black Coast (1989, solo adventure)GURPS Conan: Moon of Blood (1989, solo adventure)GURPS Conan the Wyrmslayer (1989, solo adventure)In 2003 the British company Mongoose Publishing bought a license and acquired in turn the rights to make use of the Conan gaming franchise, publishing a Conan role-playing game from 2004 until 2010, The game ran the OGL System of rules that Mongoose established for its OGL series of games:Conan: The Roleplaying Game (2004), with many supplements,In 2010 Mongoose Publishing dropped the Conan license, In February 2015, another British company, Modiphius Entertainment, acquired the license, announcing plans to put out a new Conan role-playing game in August of that year,[38] Actually, the core rulebook was not launched (via Kickst*rter) until a whole year later, in February 2016, reaching by far all funds needed for publication, Long after the Kickst*rter ended the core rulebook was launched in PDF format on January the 31st, 2017, The physical core rulebook finally st*rted distribution in June 2017 :Conan: Adventures in an Age Undreamed Of (hardcover, 368 pages, 2017), with two hardcover supplements already published and at least 17 additional supplements in the works (as planned following the Kickst*rter),Play-by-mail games[edit]Hyborian War, introduced by Reality Simulations, Inc, as of 1985,[39] is a play-by-mail game set in the Hyborian Age,Characters[edit]Characters with prominent roles in Conan prose fiction[edit]Bêlit – A self-styled queen of the Black Coast, captain of the pirate ship Tigress, and Conan's first serious lover (Queen of the Black Coast),Thoth-Amon – A Stygian wizard of great power who appeared in the first Conan story written (The Phoenix on the Sword) and was mentioned in The God in the Bowl and The Hour of the Dragon, L, Sprague de Camp and Lin Carter made Thoth-Amon the nemesis of Conan, In the Marvel comics, Thoth-Amon was also Conan's lifelong opponent and had a striking appearance designed by Barry Windsor-Smith; he wore a distinctive ram-horn ornamental headdress, He is portrayed by Pat Roach in Conan the Destroyer,Valeria – A female mercenary affiliated with the Red Brotherhood (Red Nails),Yara – An evil wizard and an adversary of Conan (The Tower of the Elephant) who enslaved Yag-Kosha, an extraterrestrial resembling Hindu god Ganesh,Zenobia – A seraglio concubine whom Conan promises to wed and make queen of Aquilonia (The Hour of the Dragon),Characters with prominent roles only in Conan comic-book fiction[edit]Red Sonja – An Hyrkanian warrior created by Roy Thomas and Barry Windsor-Smith for the Conan comics, She was based on the Howard character, Red Sonya of Rogatino, who appeared in The Shadow of the Vulture tale set in the 16th–century,Jenna – (Marvel comics character), A dancing girl from the city of Shadizar, She becomes Conan's girlfriend after he saves her from a monstrous bat, but later betrays him to the authorities, Conan gets his revenge by throwing her into a pool of sewage, Based on an unnamed character in the prose story Rogues in the House,Mikhal "the Vulture" Oglu – In Marvel comics' Conan the barbarian #23, Mikhal Oglu is Yezdigerd's enforcer and the greatest swordsman in Turan, He challenges Conan but is defeated and beheaded, He was inspired by a character in a non-Conan story by Robert E, Howard (The Shadow of the Vulture)Zukala – A character from the Conan comics published by Marvel, inspired by a poem by Robert E, Howard, Zukala is an evil sorcerer who gains his powers from his mask, His daughter Zephra falls in love with ConanYezdigerd – Ruler of Turan, a Turkish empire-based civilization, He employs Conan as a mercenary but betrays him after he outlived his usefulnessFafnir – A mighty red-bearded Vanir warrior and pirate captain, At first he and Conan are enemies but they soon become allies after being shipwreckedCharacters with prominent roles only in Conan movies[edit]Thulsa Doom – A skull-faced necromancer in a King Kull story, a recurring villain in the Kull comics, and the antagonist in the 1982 film, played by James Earl Jones,Rexor – In the 1982 movie, the chief priest of Thulsa Doom's snake cult, stole the sword of Conan's fatherThorgrim – Hammer-wielding minion of Thulsa Doom in the 1982 film, Played by Sven-Ole ThorsenSubotai – Hyrkanian thief and archer, He is Conan's companion in the 1982 film, Played by Gerry Lopez,Akiro – A character from the two Schwarzenegger Conan movies, He is a powerful wizard who befriends Conan and Subotai, He is played by Japanese actor Mako Iwamatsu,Copyright and trademark dispute[edit]The name Conan and the names of Robert E, Howard's other principal characters are claimed as trademarked by Paradox Entertainment of Stockholm, Sweden, through its US subsidiary Paradox Entertainment Inc,[citation needed] Paradox copyrights stories written by other authors under license from Conan Properties Inc,[citation needed]However, since Robert E, Howard published his Conan stories at a time when the date of publication was the marker (1932–1963), and any new owners failed to renew them to maintain the copyrights,[40] the exact copyright status of all of Howard's 'Conan' works is in question,[41] In practice, most of the Conan stories exist in at least two versions subject to different copyright standards: The original Weird Tales publications before or shortly after Howard's death, which are generally understood to be public domain, and "restored" versions based on manuscripts that were unpublished in Howard's lifetime,[citation needed]The Australian site of Project Gutenberg has many Robert E, Howard stories, including several Conan stories,[42]In the United Kingdom, works fall into the public domain 70 years after the death of an author, Therefore, with Howard having died in 1936, his works have been in the public domain since 2006,References[edit]Jump up ^ Herron (1984), p, 149: "Robert E, Howard of Cross Plains, Texas, created one of the great mythic figures in modern popular culture, the Dark Barbarian… [which] put Howard in the select ranks of the literary legend-makers"^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Louinet, pp, 429-453Jump up ^ "Hyborean Genesis: Notes on the Creation of the Conan Stories", by Patrice Louinet; in The Coming Of Conan The Cimmerian, by Robert Ervin Howard, Del Rey/Ballantine Books, 2005, p, 424Jump up ^ Conversations with Texas Writers, by Frances Leonard and Ramona Cearley, University of Texas Press, 1 Jan 2010, p, 217Jump up ^ "Conan the Barbarian - Superhero Wiki Encyclopedia", superherouniverse,com, Retrieved 2017-10-31,Jump up ^ Wandering st*r Books Archived 2013-07-18 at the Wayback Machine,, official websiteJump up ^ Howard, Robert E,, adapted by Roy Thomas and Walt Simonson, "The Hyborian Age", Conan Saga, Marvel Comics (50–54, 56), Archived from the original on 25 May 2011,Jump up ^ Howard, Robert E, (6 December 1932), "The Phoenix on the Sword", Weird Tales (20),Jump up ^ Conan the Warrior (1935): "Beyond the Black River"Jump up ^ Conan the Cimmerian: "Queen of the Black Coast" (1934)Jump up ^ Conan the Cimmerian: "The Phoenix on the Sword" (1932)Jump up ^ Dr, Jennifer Agatha Bard, "Gender Roles in Science Fiction and Fantasy", Bulletin of Gender Equality, Summer 1986,Jump up ^ George Xavier Baxter, "Heroic Fantasy and Mundane Reality", in Proceedings of the Pacific Northwest Literary Society, Autumn 1997Jump up ^ Howard, Robert E, "A Witch Shall Be Born": "the man was almost a giant in stature"; "Knots and bunches of muscle st*rted out of the massive arms",Jump up ^ Howard, Robert E, , The Hour of the Dragon, reprinted The Bloody Crown of Conan, pp, 89-90Jump up ^ Louinet, p, 436Jump up ^ As stated in Project Gutenberg AustraliaJump up ^ Katz, Ephraim (2006), Film Encyclopedia, HarperCollins, ISBN 0-06-074214-3,Jump up ^ Collis, Clark, "Empire Essay: The Terminator", Empire magazine, Archived from the original on 2007-09-27, Retrieved 2007-04-22,Jump up ^ Brian Linder (October 8, 2003), "Goodbye Hollywood, Hello Sacramento", IGN,com, IGN Entertainment, Inc, Retrieved March 7, 2010,Jump up ^ Fleming, Michael (August 12, 2007), "Millennium wins rights to 'Conan'", Variety, Reed Elsevier Inc, Archived from the original on June 5, 2011, Retrieved March 9, 2010,Jump up ^ Fleming, Michael (June 11, 2009), "Marcus Nispel to direct 'Conan' remake", Variety, Reed Elsevier Inc, Archived from the original on June 29, 2011,Jump up ^ David McNary (January 21, 2010), "Momoa set for 'Conan'", Variety, Reed Elsevier Inc, Retrieved March 9, 2010,Jump up ^ Child, Ben (2012-10-26), "Arnold Schwarzenegger to reprise his role as Conan the Barbarian," TheGuardian,com, Retrieved 2016-02-04,Jump up ^ Fleming, Mike, "Schwarzenegger And Conan The Barbarian Reunited in Universal Reboot", Deadline,com, Retrieved 2012-11-17,Jump up ^ Cornet, Roth (2014-01-29), "The Legend of Conan Producer Chris Morgan Says Arnold Schwarzenegger's Return to the Role is Going to be Their Unforgiven," IGN,com, Retrieved 2014-02-11,Jump up ^ Fleming, Mike, Jr, (2013-10-01), " 'Legend of Conan' Lands Adrea Berloff To Script Arnold Schwarzenegger Epic Reprise," Deadline,com, Retrieved 2014-02-11,^ Jump up to: a b Schaefer, Sandy (2016-01-25), "Arnold Schwarzenegger Offers Legend of Conan Title & Director Update," ScreenRant,com, Retrieved 2016-01-27,^ Jump up to: a b Auty, Dan (2016-01-26), "Arnold Schwarzenegger on His Plans for New Conan Movie," GameSpot,com, Retrieved 2016-01-27,Jump up ^ "Arnold Schwarzenegger's 'The Legend of Conan' May Not Happen After All", /Film, 6 April 2017, Retrieved 7 April 2017,Jump up ^ "Conan (comic book character)", Comicvine,com, Retrieved 2012-11-17,Jump up ^ Swaine, Jon (7 November 2008), "Barack Obama: The 50 facts you might not know", The Daily Telegraph, London, Retrieved 11 November 2008,Jump up ^ Mail Foreign Service (7 April 2009), "Meet Barack the Barbarian taking on scantily clad nemesis Sarah Palin in new comic superhero role", Daily Mail, London, Retrieved 7 August 2009,Jump up ^ Spillius, Alex (7 April 2009), "Barack Obama and Sarah Palin appear in comic series", The Daily Telegraph, London, Retrieved 26 November 2009,Jump up ^ Flood, Alison (8 April 2009), "Obama battles Red Sarah in comic clash", The Guardian, London, Retrieved 26 November 2009,Jump up ^ The official site for Conan ExilesJump up ^ "The History of TSR", Wizards of the Coast, Archived from the original on 2008-10-04, Retrieved 2005-08-20,Jump up ^ "Robert E, Howard's Conan: Adventures In An Age Undreamed Of", Mophidius Entertainment, February 9, 2015, Retrieved February 9, 2015,Jump up ^ Hyborian War in the official Reality Simulations websiteJump up ^ Paul Herman's research on the copyright status of Robert Howard's workJump up ^ "Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States at Cornell University", Archived from the original on 2012-07-04,Jump up ^ "Robert Ervin HOWARD (1906–1936)", (archived stories) Project Gutenberg,Further reading[edit]Blosser, Fred (1997), "The st*r Rover and "The People of the Night"", The Dark Man #4: 16–18,Herron, Don, editor, (2004), The Barbaric Triumph, Wildside Press, ISBN 0-8095-1566-0,Thomas, Roy (2006), Conan: The Ultimate guide to the world's most savage babarian, DK Publishing, ISBN 0-7566-2095-3,Herron, Don, editor, (1984), The Dark Barbarian, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-23281-4,Louinet, Patrice, editor, (2003), The Coming of Conan the Cimmerian, Del Rey, ISBN 0-345-46151-7,Zelenetz, Alan (1986), The Official Handbook of the Conan Universe, Marvel Comics,External links[edit]Wikiquote has quotations related to: Conan the BarbarianWikisource has original text related to this article:Conan the BarbarianWikimedia Commons has media related to Conan the Barbarian,The Works of Robert E, HowardConan: The Official WebsiteConan: Czech fanpage[show] v t eConan the Barbarian[show] v t eWorks by Robert E, Howard[show] v t eFantasy fictionAuthority controlWorldCat Identities VIAF: 86206611 GND: 138058016Categories: Characters in pulp fictionFictional Celtic peopleFictional CimmeriansConan the BarbarianConan the Barbarian charactersDark Horse Comics superheroesFantasy books by seriesFantasy film charactersFictional slavesFictional characters introduced in 1932Fictional kingsFictional mercenariesFictional piratesFictional swordsmenMortals in the Cthulhu MythosRobert E, Howard charactersNovels adapted into comicsAmerican novels adapted into filmsNovels adapted into television programsNovels adapted into video games-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT COMIC BOOKS Comic book From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia It has been suggested that American comic book be merged into this article or section, (Discuss) Proposed since April 2012, The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject, Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page, (August 2010) Comic book Action Comics #1 Comics Comics studies Education History Glossary Technique Cartooning Decompression Fumetti Media Comic book Comic strip Gag cartoon Graphic novel Webcomic Community Awards Collecting Publishing companies Comics Portal v t e This article is about periodicals containing comics, For the comics medium, see Comics, A comic book or comicbook,[1] also called comic magazine and often shortened to simply comic or comics, is a magazine made up of "comics"—narrative artwork in the form of separate panels that represent individual scenes, often accompanied by dialog (usually in word balloons, emblematic of the comic book art form) as well as including brief descriptive prose, The first comic book appeared in the United States in 1933, reprinting the earlier newspaper comic strips, which established many of the story-telling devices used in comics, The term "comic book" arose because the first comic book reprinted humor comic strips, Despite their name, comic books are not necessarily humorous in tone; modern comic books tell stories in many genres, Contents 1 American comic books 1,1 Underground comic books 1,2 Alternative comics 1,3 Graphic novels 1,4 Digital graphic novels 1,5 Comic book collecting 2 European comics 2,1 Franco-Belgian comics 2,2 British comics 2,3 Italian comics 3 Japanese comics (manga) 3,1 Doujinshi 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links American comic books Rulah, Jungle Goddess No, 24 (March 1949): An example of a non-superhero jungle-girl character, Cover artist(s) unknown, Adventures into Darkness: Horror stories Since the introduction of the comic book format in 1933 with the publication of Famous Funnies, the United States has produced the most titles, along with British comics and Japanese manga, in terms of quantity of titles,[citation needed] Cultural historians divide the career of the comic book in the U,S, into several ages or historical eras:[citation needed] Comic book historians continue to debate the exact boundaries of these eras, but they have come to an agreement, the terms for which originated in the fan press, Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover—making it the first known American prototype comic book, The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry,[2] and is the st*rt of the Golden Age of comics, Historians have proposed several names for the Age before Superman, most commonly dubbing it the Platinum Age,[3] While the Platinum Age saw the first use of the term "comic book" (The Yellow Kid in McFadden's Flats (1897)), the first known full-color comic (The Blackberries (1901)), and the first monthly comic book (Comics Monthly (1922)), it was not until the Golden Age that the archetype of the superhero would originate, The Silver Age of comic books is generally considered to date from the first successful revival of the dormant superhero form—the debut of Robert Kanigher and Carmine Infantino's Flash in Showcase No, 4 (September/October 1956),[4][5] The Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Stan Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man, The precise beginnings of the Bronze and Copper Ages remain less well-defined, Suggested st*rting points for the Bronze Age of comics include Roy Thomas and Barry Windsor-Smith's Conan No, 1 (October 1970), Denny O'Neil and Neal Adams' Green Lantern/Green Arrow No, 76 (April 1970), or Stan Lee and Gil Kane's The Amazing Spider-Man No, 96 (May 1971; the non-Comics Code issue), The st*rt of the Copper Age (apprx, 1984–2000) has even more potential st*rting points, but is generally agreed to be the publication of Frank Miller's Batman: The Dark Knight Returns and Alan Moore's Watchmen by DC Comics in 1986, as well as the publication of DC's Crisis on Infinite Earths, written by Marv Wolfman with pencils by George Pérez, A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with the psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent (1954), which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books, In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U,S, comic book industry set up the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the "Comics Code" in the same year, Underground comic books Main article: Underground comix In the late 1960s and early 1970s a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comics, Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time, Many had an uninhibited, often irreverent style; their frank depictions of nudity, sex, profanity, and politics had no parallel outside their precursors, the pornographic and even more obscure "Tijuana bibles", Underground comics were almost never sold at news stands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order, Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon,[6][7] has been credited as the first underground comic,[6][7] Alternative comics Main article: Alternative comics The rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U,S, The first such comics included the anthology series st*r Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, and Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman and Robert Pulcini adapted into a 2003 film, Some independent comics continued in the tradition of underground comics, though their content was generally less explicit, and others resembled the output of mainstream publishers in format and genre but were published by smaller artist-owned companies or by single artists, A few (notably RAW) were experimental attempts to bring comics closer to the status of fine art, During the 1970s the "small press" culture grew and diversified, By the 1980s, several independent publishers, such as Pacific, Eclipse, First, Comico, and Fantagraphics had st*rted releasing a wide range of styles and formats—from color superhero, detective, and science fiction comic books to black-and-white magazine-format stories of Latin American magical realism, A number of small publishers in the 1990s changed the format and distribution of their comics to more closely resemble non-comics publishing, The "minicomics" form, an extremely informal version of self-publishing, arose in the 1980s and became increasingly popular among artists in the 1990s, despite reaching an even more limited audience than the small press, Small publishers regularly releasing titles include Avatar Comics, Hyperwerks, Raytoons, and Terminal Press, buoyed by such advances in printing technology as digital print-on-demand, Graphic novels Main article: Graphic novel In 1964, Richard Kyle coined the term "graphic novel" to distinguish newly translated European works from genre-driven subject matter common in American comics, Precursors of the form existed by the 1920s, which saw a revival of the medieval woodcut tradition by Belgian Frans Masereel,[8] American Lynd Ward and others, In 1950, St, John Publications produced the digest-sized, adult-oriented "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust, a 128-page digest by pseudonymous writer "Drake Waller" (Arnold Drake and Leslie Waller), penciler Matt Baker and inker Ray Osrin, touted as "an original full-length novel" on its cover, In 1971, writer-artist Gil Kane and collaborators devised the paperback "comics novel" Blackmark, Will Eisner popularized the term "graphic novel" when he used it on the cover of the paperback edition of his work A Contract with God, and Other Tenement Stories in 1978, Digital graphic novels See also: Digital comics Comic book collecting Main article: Comic book collecting This section requires expansion, (April 2012) Some rare comic books include copies of the unreleased Motion Picture Funnies Weekly No, 1 from 1939, Eight copies, plus one without a cover, emerged in the estate of the deceased publisher in 1974, The "Pay Copy" of this book sold for $43,125 in a 2005 Heritage auction,[9] The most valuable American comics have combined rarity and quality with the first appearances of popular and enduring characters, Four comic books to have sold for over $1 million USD as of December 2010, including two examples of Action Comics No, 1, the first appearance of Superman,[10][11] both sold privately through online dealer ComicConnect,com in 2010, and Detective Comics No, 27, the first appearance of Batman, via public auction, Misprints, promotional comic-dealer incentive printings, and similar issues with extremely low distribution also generally have scarcity value, The rarest modern comic books include the original press run of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen No, 5, which DC executive Paul Levitz recalled and pulped due to the appearance of a vintage Victorian era advertisement for "Marvel Douche", which the publisher considered offensive;[12] only 100 copies exist, most of which have been CGC graded, (See Recalled comics for more pulped, recalled, and erroneous comics,) In 2000, a company named CGC began to "slab" comics, encasing them in a thick plastic and giving them a numeric grade, European comics Main article: European comics Franco-Belgian comics Main article: Franco-Belgian comics France and Belgium have a long tradition in comics and comic books, called BDs (an abbreviation of bande dessinées) in French and strips in Dutch, Belgian comic books originally written in Dutch show the influence of the Francophone "Franco-Belgian" comics, but have their own distinct style, The name la bande dessinée derives from the original description of the art form as drawn strips (the phrase literally translates as "the drawn strip"), analogous to the sequence of images in a film strip, As in its English equivalent, the word "bande" can be applied to both film and comics, Significantly, the French-language term contains no indication of subject-matter, unlike the American terms "comics" and "funnies", which imply an art form not to be taken seriously, The distinction of comics as le neuvième art (literally, "the ninth art") is prevalent in French scholarship on the form, as is the concept of comics criticism and scholarship itself, Relative to the respective size of their populations, the innumerable authors in France and Belgium publish a high volume of comic books, In North America, the more serious Franco-Belgian comics are often seen as equivalent to graphic novels, but whether they are long or short, bound or in magazine format, in Europe there is no need for a more sophisticated term, as the art's name does not itself imply something frivolous, In France, authors control the publication of most comics, The author works within a self-appointed time-frame, and it is common for readers to wait six months or as long as two years between installments, Most books first appear in print as a hardcover book, typically with 48, 56, or 64 pages, British comics Main article: British comics Originally the same size as a usual comic book in the U,S, (although lacking the glossy cover), the British comic has adopted a magazine size, with The Beano and The Dandy the last to adopt this size (in the 1980s), Although the British generally speak of "a comic" or of "a comic magazine", and they also historically spoke of "a comic paper",[citation needed] Some comics, such as Judge Dredd and other 2000 AD titles, have been published in a tabloid form, Although Ally Sloper's Half Holiday (1884), the first comic published in Britain, was aimed at an adult market, publishers quickly targeted a younger market, which has led to most publications being for children and created an association in the public's mind of comics as somewhat juvenile, Popular titles within the UK have included The Beano, The Dandy, The Eagle, 2000 AD, and Viz, Underground comics and "small press" titles have also been published within the UK, notably Oz and Escape Magazine, The content of Action, another title aimed at children and launched in the mid-1970s, became the subject of discussion in the House of Commons, Although on a smaller scale than similar investigations in the U,S,, such concerns led to a moderation of content published within British comics, Such moderation never became formalized to the extent of promulgating a code, nor did it last long, The UK has also established a healthy market in the reprinting and repackaging of material, notably material originating in the U,S, The lack of reliable supplies of American comic books led to a variety of black-and-white reprints, including Marvel's monster comics of the 1950s, Fawcett's Captain Marvel, and other characters such as Sheena, Mandrake the Magician, and the Phantom, Several reprint companies were involved in repackaging American material for the British market, notably the importer and distributor Thorpe & Porter, Marvel Comics established a UK office in 1972, DC Comics and Dark Horse Comics also opened offices in the 1990s, The repackaging of European material has occurred less frequently, although the Tintin and Asterix serials have been successfully translated and repackaged in softcover books, At Christmas time, publishers repackage and commission material for comic annuals, printed and bound as hardcover A4-size books; Rupert supplies a famous example of the British comic annual, DC Thomson also repackages The Broons and Oor Wullie strips in softcover A4-size books for the holiday season, On 19 March 2012, the British postal service, the Royal Mail, released a set of stamps depicting British comic-book characters and series,[13] The collection featured The Beano, The Dandy, Eagle, The Topper, Roy of the Rovers, Bunty, Buster, Valiant, Twinkle and 2000 AD, Italian comics Main article: Italian comics In Italy, comics (known in Italian as fumetti) made their debut as humor strips at the end of the 19th century, and later evolved into adventure stories, After World War II, however, artists like Hugo Pratt and Guido Crepax exposed Italian comics to an international audience, Popular comic books such as Diabolik or the Bonelli line—namely Tex Willer or Dylan Dog—remain best-sellers, Mainstream comics are usually published on a monthly basis, in a black-and-white digest size format, with approximately 100 to 132 pages, Collections of classic material for the most famous characters, usually with more than 200 pages, are also common, Author comics are published in the French BD format, with an example being Pratt's Corto Maltese, Italian cartoonists show the influence of comics from other countries, including France, Belgium, Spain, and Argentina, Italy is also famous for being one of the foremost producers of Walt Disney comic stories outside the U,S, Donald Duck's superhero alter ego, Paperinik, known in English as Superduck, was created in Italy, Japanese comics (manga) This section may not properly summarize its corresponding main article, Specific concerns can be found on the Talk page, Please help us improve this article if you can, Main article: Manga The first comic books in Japan appeared during the 18th century in the form of woodblock-printed booklets containing short stories drawn from folk tales, legends, and historical accounts, told in a simple visual-verbal idiom, Known as "red books" (?? akahon?), "black books" (?? kurobon?), and "blue books" (?? aohon?), these were written primarily for less literate readers, However, with the publication in 1775 of Koikawa Harumachi's comic book Master Flashgold's Splendiferous Dream (???????? Kinkin sensei eiga no yume?), an adult form of comic book originated, which required greater literacy and cultural sophistication, This was known as the kibyoshi (????, lit, yellow cover), Published in thousands of copies, the kibyoshi may have been the earliest fully realized comic book for adults in world literary history, Approximately 2,000 titles remain extant, Modern comic books in Japan developed from a mixture of these earlier comic books and of woodblock prints ukiyo-e (????) with Western styles of drawing, They took their current form shortly after World War II, They are usually published in black-and-white, except for the covers, which are usually printed in four colors, although occasionally, the first few pages may also be printed in full color, The term manga means "random (or whimsical) pictures", and first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santo Kyoden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai (?????) (1798) and Aikawa Minwa's Comic Sketches of a Hundred Women (1798), During the Meiji period, the term Akahon was also common, Western artists were brought over to teach their students such concepts as line, form, and color; things which had not been regarded as conceptually important in ukiyo-e, as the idea behind the picture was of paramount importance, Manga at this time was referred to as Ponchi-e (Punch-picture) and, like its British counterpart Punch magazine, mainly depicted humor and political satire in short one- or four-picture format, Dr, Osamu Tezuka (1928–1989) further developed this form, Seeing an animated war propaganda film titled Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors (??? ???? Momotaro Umi no Shinpei?) inspired Tezuka to become a comic artist, He introduced episodic storytelling and character development in comic format, in which each story is part of larger story arc, The only text in Tezuka's comics was the characters' dialogue and this further lent his comics a cinematic quality, Inspired by the work of Walt Disney, Tezuka also adopted a style of drawing facial features in which a character's eyes, nose, and mouth are drawn in an extremely exaggerated manner, This style created immediately recognizable expressions using very few lines, and the simplicity of this style allowed Tezuka to be prolific, Tezuka's work generated new interest in the ukiyo-e tradition, in which the image is a representation of an idea, rather than a depiction of reality, Though a close equivalent to the American comic book, manga has historically held a more important place in Japanese culture than comics have in American culture, Japanese society shows a wide respect for manga, both as an art form and as a form of popular literature, Many manga become television shows or short films, As with its American counterpart, some manga has been criticized for its sexuality and violence, although in the absence of official or even industry restrictions on content, artists have freely created manga for every age group and for every topic, Manga magazines—also known as "anthologies"—often run several series concurrently, with approximately 20 to 40 pages allocated to each series per issue, These magazines range from 200 to more than 850 pages each, Manga magazines also contain one-shot comics and a variety of four-panel yonkoma (equivalent to comic strips), Manga series may continue for many years if they are successful, with stories often collected and reprinted in book-sized volumes called tankobon (????, lit, stand-alone book), the equivalent of the American trade paperbacks, These volumes use higher-quality paper and are useful to readers who want to be brought up to date with a series, or to readers who find the cost of the weekly or monthly publications to be prohibitive, Deluxe versions are printed as commemorative or collectible editions, Conversely, old manga titles are also reprinted using lower-quality paper and sold for 120 ¥ (approximately $1 USD) each, Doujinshi Main article: Doujinshi Doujinshi (????, lit, fan magazine), fan-made Japanese comics operate in a far larger market in Japan than the American "underground comics" market; the largest doujinshi fair, Comic Market, attracts 500,000 visitors twice a year, See also Comics portal Cartoon Comics Studies Comics vocabulary Webcomic Digital comics Comic book therapy -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Science fiction From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Scifi" and "Sci Fi" redirect here, For other uses, see Scifi (disambiguation), Speculative fiction Alternate history Writers Fantasy fiction Anime Art Fantastic art Fiction magazines Films Genres History Legendary creatures Literature Quests and artifacts Races Television Themes Worlds Writers Horror fiction Anime Awards Conventions Fiction magazines Films Genres Television Writers Science fiction Anime Artists Awards Conventions Editors Fandom Fiction magazines Genres History Organizations Television Themes Writers Other Internet Speculative Fiction Database The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction Speculative fiction portal v t e Science fiction is a genre of fiction with imaginative but more or less plausible content such as settings in the future, futuristic science and technology, space travel, parallel universes, aliens, and paranormal abilities, Exploring the consequences of scientific innovations is one purpose of science fiction, making it a "literature of ideas",[1] Science fiction has been used by authors and film/television program makers as a device to discuss philosophical ideas such as identity, desire, morality and social structure etc, Science fiction is largely based on writing rationally about alternative possible worlds or futures,[2] It is similar to, but differs from fantasy in that, within the context of the story, its imaginary elements are largely possible within scientifically established or scientifically postulated laws of nature (though some elements in a story might still be pure imaginative speculation), The settings for science fiction are often contrary to consensus reality, but most science fiction relies on a considerable degree of suspension of disbelief, which is facilitated in the reader's mind by potential scientific explanations or solutions to various fictional elements, Science fiction elements include: A time setting in the future, in alternative timelines, or in a historical past that contradicts known facts of history or the archaeological record, A spatial setting or scenes in outer space (e,g, spaceflight), on other worlds, or on subterranean earth,[3] Characters that include aliens, mutants, androids, or humanoid robots, Futuristic technology such as ray guns, teleportation machines, and humanoid computers,[4] Scientific principles that are new or that contradict accepted laws of nature, for example time travel, wormholes, or faster-than-light travel, New and different political or social systems, e,g, dystopia, post-scarcity, or a post-apocalyptic situation where organized society has collapsed,[5] Paranormal abilities such as mind control, telepathy, telekinesis, and teleportation, Other universes or dimensions and travel between them, Contents 1 Definitions 2 History 2,1 The term "sci-fi" 2,2 Innovation 3 Subgenres 3,1 Hard SF 3,2 Soft and social SF 3,3 Cyberpunk 3,4 Time travel 3,5 Alternate history 3,6 Military SF 3,7 Superhuman 3,8 Apocalyptic 3,9 Space opera 3,10 Space Western 3,11 Other sub-genres 4 Related genres 4,1 Speculative fiction, fantasy, and horror 4,2 Fantasy 4,3 Horror fiction 4,4 Mystery fiction 4,5 Superhero fiction 5 Fandom and community 5,1 Awards 5,2 Conventions, clubs, and organizations 5,3 Fanzines and online fandom 5,4 Fan fiction 6 Science fiction studies 6,1 Science fiction as serious literature 7 Science fiction world-wide 7,1 Africa and African diaspora 7,2 Asia and the Middle East 7,3 Europe 7,3,1 Germany and Austria 7,3,2 France, other Francophone countries, and Québec 7,3,3 Russia, the Soviet Union and post-Soviet states 7,4 Oceania 7,5 North America 7,6 Latin America 8 See also 9 Notes and references 9,1 Notes 9,2 References 10 External links Definitions For more details on this topic, see Definitions of science fiction, Science fiction is difficult to define, as it includes a wide range of subgenres and themes, Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it",[6] a definition echoed by author Mark C, Glassy, who argues that the definition of science fiction is like the definition of pornography: you don't know what it is, but you know it when you see it,[7] Vladimir Nabokov argued that if we were rigorous with our definitions, Shakespeare's play The Tempest would have to be termed science fiction,[8] According to science fiction writer Robert A, Heinlein, "a handy short definition of almost all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world, past and present, and on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method,"[9] Rod Serling's definition is "fantasy is the impossible made probable, Science fiction is the improbable made possible,"[10] Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado—or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is", and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no easily delineated limits to science fiction,"[11] History For more details on this topic, see History of science fiction, As a means of understanding the world through speculation and storytelling, science fiction has antecedents back to mythology, though precursors to science fiction as literature can be seen in Lucian's True History in the 2nd century,[12][13][14][15][16] some of the Arabian Nights tales,[17][18] The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter in the 10th century[18] and Ibn al-Nafis' Theologus Autodidactus in the 13th century,[19] A product of the budding Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels[20] was one of the first true science fantasy works, together with Voltaire's Micromégas (1752) and Johannes Kepler's Somnium (1620–1630),[21] Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan consider the latter work the first science fiction story,[22][23] It depicts a journey to the Moon and how the Earth's motion is seen from there, Another example is Ludvig Holberg's novel Nicolai Klimii iter subterraneum, 1741, (Translated to Danish by Hans Hagerup in 1742 as Niels Klims underjordiske Rejse,) (Eng, Niels Klim's Underground Travels,) Brian Aldiss has argued that Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1818) was the first work of science fiction,[24] Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, in the early 19th century, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science fiction novel;[25] later Edgar Allan Poe wrote a story about a flight to the moon,[26] More examples appeared throughout the 19th century, H, G, Wells Then with the dawn of new technologies such as electricity, the telegraph, and new forms of powered transportation, writers including Jules Verne and H, G, Wells created a body of work that became popular across broad cross-sections of society,[27] Wells' The War of the Worlds (1898) describes an invasion of late Victorian England by Martians using tripod fighting machines equipped with advanced weaponry, It is a seminal depiction of an alien invasion of Earth, In the late 19th century, the term "scientific romance" was used in Britain to describe much of this fiction, This produced additional offshoots, such as the 1884 novella Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions by Edwin Abbott Abbott, The term would continue to be used into the early 20th century for writers such as Olaf Stapledon, Jules Verne In the early 20th century, pulp magazines helped develop a new generation of mainly American SF writers, influenced by Hugo Gernsback, the founder of Amazing Stories magazine,[28] In 1912 Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long series of Barsoom novels, situated on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero, The 1928 publication of Philip Nolan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419, in Amazing Stories was a landmark event, This story led to comic strips featuring Buck Rogers (1929), Brick Bradford (1933), and Flash Gordon (1934), The comic strips and derivative movie serials greatly popularized science fiction, In the late 1930s, John W, Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, and a critical mass of new writers emerged in New York City in a group called the Futurians, including Isaac Asimov, Damon Knight, Donald A, Wollheim, Frederik Pohl, James Blish, Judith Merril, and others,[29] Other important writers during this period and later, include E,E, (Doc) Smith, Robert A, Heinlein, Arthur C, Clarke, Olaf Stapledon, A, E, van Vogt, Ray Bradbury and Stanislaw Lem, Campbell's tenure at Astounding is considered to be the beginning of the Golden Age of science fiction, characterized by hard SF stories celebrating scientific achievement and progress,[28] This lasted until postwar technological advances, new magazines such as Galaxy under Pohl as editor, and a new generation of writers began writing stories outside the Campbell mode, In the 1950s, the Beat generation included speculative writers such as William S, Burroughs, In the 1960s and early 1970s, writers like Frank Herbert, Samuel R, Delany, Roger Zelazny, and Harlan Ellison explored new trends, ideas, and writing styles, while a group of writers, mainly in Britain, became known as the New Wave for their embrace of a high degree of experimentation, both in form and in content, and a highbrow and self-consciously "literary" or artistic sensibility,[20] In the 1970s, writers like Larry Niven and Poul Anderson began to redefine hard SF,[30] Ursula K, Le Guin and others pioneered soft science fiction,[31] In the 1980s, cyberpunk authors like William Gibson turned away from the optimism and support for progress of traditional science fiction,[32] This dystopian vision of the near future is described in the work of Philip K, Dick, such as Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and We Can Remember It for You Wholesale, which resulted in the films Blade Runner and Total Recall, The st*r Wars franchise helped spark a new interest in space opera,[33] focusing more on story and character than on scientific accuracy, C, J, Cherryh's detailed explorations of alien life and complex scientific challenges influenced a generation of writers,[34] Emerging themes in the 1990s included environmental issues, the implications of the global Internet and the expanding information universe, questions about biotechnology and nanotechnology, as well as a post-Cold War interest in post-scarcity societies; Neal Stephenson's The Diamond Age comprehensively explores these themes, Lois McMaster Bujold's Vorkosigan novels brought the character-driven story back into prominence,[35] The television series st*r Trek: The Next Generation (1987) began a torrent of new SF shows, including three further st*r Trek spin-off shows and Babylon 5,[36][37] Concern about the rapid pace of technological change crystallized around the concept of the technological singularity, popularized by Vernor Vinge's novel Marooned in Realtime and then taken up by other authors,[citation needed] The term "sci-fi" Forrest J Ackerman used the term sci-fi (analogous to the then-trendy "hi-fi") at UCLA in 1954,[38] As science fiction entered popular culture, writers and fans active in the field came to associate the term with low-budget, low-tech "B-movies" and with low-quality pulp science fiction,[39][40][41] By the 1970s, critics within the field such as Terry Carr and Damon Knight were using sci-fi to distinguish hack-work from serious science fiction,[42] and around 1978, Susan Wood and others introduced the pronunciation "skiffy", Peter Nicholls writes that "SF" (or "sf") is "the preferred abbreviation within the community of sf writers and readers",[43] David Langford's monthly fanzine Ansible includes a regular section "As Others See Us" which offers numerous examples of "sci-fi" being used in a pejorative sense by people outside the genre,[44] Innovation Science fiction has criticised developing and future technologies, but also initiates innovation and new technology, This topic has been more often discussed in literary and sociological than in scientific forums, Cinema and media theorist Vivian Sobchack examines the dialogue between science fiction films and the technological imagination, Technology impacts artists and how they portray their fictionalized subjects, but the fictional world gives back to science by broadening imagination, How William Shatner Changed the World is a documentary that gave many real-world examples of actualized technological imaginations, While more prevalent in the early years of science fiction with writers like Arthur C, Clarke, new authors still find ways to make currently impossible technologies seem closer to being realized,[45] Subgenres For more details on this topic, see Science fiction genre, A categorization of science fiction into various subgenres can be problematic, because these subcategories are not simple pigeonholes, Some works may overlap two or more commonly defined genres, whereas others are beyond the generic boundaries, either outside or between categories, Moreover, the categories and genres used by mass markets and literary criticism differ considerably, One example that straddles science fiction subgenres is Elizabeth Moon's Vatta's War series, which has been described by many as military science fiction but also has elements of space opera, Hard SF Main article: Hard science fiction This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) Arthur C, Clarke Hard science fiction, or "hard SF", is characterized by rigorous attention to accurate detail in quantitative sciences, especially physics, astrophysics, and chemistry, or on accurately depicting worlds that more advanced technology may make possible, Many accurate predictions of the future come from the hard science fiction subgenre, but numerous inaccurate predictions have emerged as well,[citation needed] Some hard SF authors have distinguished themselves as working scientists, including Gregory Benford, Geoffrey A, Landis and David Brin,[46][47] while mathematician authors include Rudy Rucker and Vernor Vinge, Other noteworthy hard SF authors include Isaac Asimov, Arthur C, Clarke, Hal Clement, Greg Bear, Larry Niven, Robert J, Sawyer, Stephen Baxter, Alastair Reynolds, Charles Sheffield, Ben Bova, Kim Stanley Robinson and Greg Egan, Soft and social SF Main article: Soft science fiction This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) The description "soft" science fiction may describe works based on social sciences such as psychology, economics, political science, sociology, and anthropology, Noteworthy writers in this category include Ursula K, Le Guin and Philip K, Dick,[28][48] The term can describe stories focused primarily on character and emotion; SFWA Grand Master Ray Bradbury was an acknowledged master of this art,[49] The Eastern Bloc produced a large quantity of social science fiction, including works by Polish authors Stanislaw Lem and Janusz Zajdel, as well as Soviet authors such as the Strugatsky brothers, Kir Bulychov, Yevgeny Zamyatin and Ivan Yefremov,[50][51] Some writers blur the boundary between hard and soft science fiction,[52] Related to social SF and soft SF are utopian and dystopian stories; George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, and Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale are examples, Satirical novels with fantastic settings such as Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift may also be considered science fiction or speculative fiction, Cyberpunk Main article: Cyberpunk This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) The cyberpunk genre emerged in the early 1980s; combining cybernetics and punk,[53] the term was coined by author Bruce Bethke for his 1980 short story "Cyberpunk",[54] The time frame is usually near-future and the settings are often dystopian in nature and characterized by misery, Common themes in cyberpunk include advances in information technology and especially the Internet, visually abstracted as cyberspace, artificial intelligence, and prosthetics and post-democratic societal control where corporations have more influence than governments, Nihilism, post-modernism, and film noir techniques are common elements, and the protagonists may be disaffected or reluctant anti-heroes, Noteworthy authors in this genre are William Gibson, Bruce Sterling, Neal Stephenson, and Pat Cadigan, James O'Ehley has called the 1982 film Blade Runner a definitive example of the cyberpunk visual style,[55] Time travel This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) Time travel stories have antecedents in the 18th and 19th centuries, The first major time travel novel was Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, The most famous is H, G, Wells's 1895 novel The Time Machine, which uses a vehicle that allows an operator to travel purposefully and selectively, while Twain's time traveler is struck in the head, The term "time machine", coined by Wells, is now universally used to refer to such a vehicle, Stories of this type are complicated by logical problems such as the grandfather paradox,[56] Time travel continues to be a popular subject in modern science fiction, in print, movies, and television such as the BBC television series Doctor Who, Alternate history Main article: Alternate history This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) Alternate (or alternative) history stories are based on the premise that historical events might have turned out differently, These stories may use time travel to change the past, or may simply set a story in a universe with a different history from our own, Classics in the genre include Bring the Jubilee by Ward Moore, in which the South wins the American Civil War, and The Man in the High Castle by Philip K, Dick, in which Germany and Japan win World War II, The Sidewise Award acknowledges the best works in this subgenre; the name is taken from Murray Leinster's 1934 story "Sidewise in Time," Harry Turtledove is one of the most prominent authors in the subgenre and is sometimes called the "master of alternate history",[57][58] Military SF Main article: Military science fiction This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) Military science fiction is set in the context of conflict between national, interplanetary, or interstellar armed forces; the primary viewpoint characters are usually soldiers, Stories include detail about military technology, procedure, ritual, and history; military stories may use parallels with historical conflicts, Heinlein's st*rship Troopers is an early example, along with the Dorsai novels of Gordon Dickson, Joe Haldeman's The Forever War is a critique of the genre, a Vietnam-era response to the World War II–style stories of earlier authors,[59] Prominent military SF authors include John Ringo, David Drake, David Weber, and S, M, Stirling, The publishing company Baen Books is known for cultivating military science fiction authors,[60] Superhuman This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) Superhuman stories deal with the emergence of humans who have abilities beyond the norm, This can stem either from natural causes such as in Olaf Stapledon's novel Odd John, and Theodore Sturgeon's More Than Human, or be the result of intentional augmentation such as in A, E, van Vogt's novel Slan, These stories usually focus on the alienation that these beings feel as well as society's reaction to them, These stories have played a role in the real life discussion of human enhancement, Frederik Pohl's Man Plus also belongs to this category, Apocalyptic Main article: Apocalyptic fiction This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) Apocalyptic fiction is concerned with the end of civilization through war (On the Beach), pandemic (The Last Man), astronomic impact (When Worlds Collide), ecological disaster (The Wind from Nowhere), or some other general disaster or with a world or civilization after such a disaster, Typical of the genre are George R, Stewart's novel Earth Abides and Pat Frank's novel Alas, Babylon, Apocalyptic fiction generally concerns the disaster itself and the direct aftermath, while post-apocalyptic can deal with anything from the near aftermath (as in Cormac McCarthy's The Road) to 375 years in the future (as in By The Waters of Babylon) to hundreds or thousands of years in the future, as in Russell Hoban's novel Riddley Walker and Walter M, Miller, Jr,'s A Canticle for Leibowitz, Space opera Main article: Space opera This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) Space opera is adventure science fiction set in outer space or on distant planets, The conflict is heroic, and typically on a large scale, Space opera is sometimes used pejoratively, to describe improbable plots, absurd science, and cardboard characters, But it is also used nostalgically, and modern space opera may be an attempt to recapture the sense of wonder of the golden age of science fiction, The pioneer of this subgenre is generally recognized to be Edward E, (Doc) Smith, with his Skylark and Lensman series, L, Ron Hubbard's Battlefield Earth is an example of this subgenre,[61] The st*r Trek television series franchise is often described as space opera that encourages this sense of wonder, in that most of the scripts are generally about peaceful space exploration and examinations of cultural differences rather than about conflict between civilizations, Alastair Reynolds's Revelation Space series, Peter F, Hamilton's Void, Night's Dawn, Pandora's st*r series, Vernor Vinge's A Fire Upon the Deep, A Deepness in the Sky are newer examples of this genre, Space Western Main article: Space Western This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) Space Western could be considered a sub-genre of space opera that transposes themes of the American Western books and film to a backdrop of futuristic space frontiers, These stories typically involve "frontier" colony worlds (colonies that have only recently been terraformed and/or settled) serving as stand-ins for the backdrop of lawlessness and economic expansion that were predominant in the American west, Examples include the Sean Connery film Outland, the Firefly television series, and the film sequel Serenity by Joss Whedon, as well as the manga and anime series Trigun, Outlaw st*r, and Cowboy Bebop, Other sub-genres This section requires expansion, (June 2008) Anthropological science fiction This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) is a sub-genre that absorbs and discusses anthropology and the study of human kind, Examples include Hominids by Robert J, Sawyer, and Neanderthal by John Darnton, Biopunk This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) focuses on biotechnology and subversives, Comic science fiction This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) is a sub-genre that exploits the genre's conventions for comic effect, Feminist science fiction poses questions about social issues such as how society constructs gender roles, the role reproduction plays in defining gender and the unequal political and personal power of men and women, Some of the most notable feminist science fiction works have illustrated these themes using utopias to explore a society in which gender differences or gender power imbalances do not exist, or dystopias to explore worlds in which gender inequalities are intensified, thus asserting a need for feminist work to continue,[62] Joanna Russ's work, and some of Ursula Le Guin's work can be thus categorized, Steampunk This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) is based on the idea of futuristic technology existing in the past, usually the 19th century, and often set in Victorian era England—but with prominent elements of either science fiction or fantasy, such as fictional technological inventions like those found in the works of H, G, Wells and Jules Verne, or real technological developments like the computer occurring at an earlier date, Popular examples include The Difference Engine by William Gibson and Bruce Sterling, as well as the Girl Genius series by Phil and Kaja Foglio, although seeds of the genre may be seen in certain works of Michael Moorcock, Philip Jose Farmer and Steve Stiles, and in such games as Space 1889 and Marcus Rowland's Forgotten Futures, Machines are most often powered by steam in this genre (hence the name), Dieselpunk takes over where Steampunk leaves off, These are stories that take over as we usher in the machine-heavy eras of WWI and WWII, The use of diesel-powered machines plays heavily, In this (like its steam counterpart), the focus is on the technology, Science-fiction poetry This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013) is poetry that has the characteristics or subject matter of science fiction, Science fiction poetry's main sources are the sciences and the literary movement of science fiction prose, An extended discussion of the field is given in Suzette Haden Elgin's The Science Fiction Poetry Handbook, where she compares and contrasts it to both mainstream poetry and to prose science fiction, The former, she maintains, uses figures of speech unencumbered by noncompliant details, whereas these details can be key elements in science-fiction poetry, Prose in science fiction has the time to develop a setting and a story, whereas a poem in the field is normally constrained by its short length to rely on some device to get a point across quickly, Elgin says that the effectiveness of this kind of poetry pivots around the correct use of presupposition, [63], The Science Fiction Association is an international organization of speculative poets, [64] which gives the annual Rhysling awards for speculative poetry, An early example of science fiction in poetry is in Alfred, Lord Tennyson's "Locksley Hall", where he introduces a picture of the future with "When I dipt into the future far as human eye could see,,,," This poem was written in 1835, near the end of the first Industrial Revolution, Poetry was only sparingly published in traditional science-fiction outlets such as pulp magazines until the New Wave, [65] By the 1980s there were magazines specifically devoted to science-fiction poetry, [66] Related genres Speculative fiction, fantasy, and horror For more details on this topic, see speculative fiction, The broader category of speculative fiction[67] includes science fiction, fantasy, alternate histories (which may have no particular scientific or futuristic component), and even literary stories that contain fantastic elements, such as the work of Jorge Luis Borges or John Barth, For some editors, magic realism is considered to be within the broad definition of speculative fiction,[68] Fantasy Main article: Fantasy Fantasy is closely associated with science fiction, and many writers have worked in both genres, while writers such as Anne McCaffrey, Ursula K, LeGuin, and Marion Zimmer Bradley have written works that appear to blur the boundary between the two related genres,[69] The authors' professional organization is called the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA),[70] SF conventions routinely have programming on fantasy topics,[71][72][73] and fantasy authors such as J, K, Rowling have won the highest honor within the science fiction field, the Hugo Award,[74] In general, science fiction differs from fantasy in that the former concerns things that might someday be possible or that at least embody the pretense of realism, Supernaturalism, usually absent in science fiction, is the distinctive characteristic of fantasy literature, A dictionary definition referring to fantasy literature is "fiction characterized by highly fanciful or supernatural elements," [75] Examples of fantasy supernaturalism include magic (spells, harm to opponents), magical places (Narnia, Oz, Middle Earth, Hogwarts), supernatural creatures (witches, vampires, orcs, trolls), supernatural transportation (flying broomsticks, ruby slippers, windows between worlds), and shapeshifting (beast into man, man into wolf or bear, lion into sheep), Such things are basic themes in fantasy,[76] Literary critic Fredric Jameson has characterized the difference between the two genres by describing science fiction as turning "on a formal framework determined by concepts of the mode of production rather than those of religion" - that is, science fiction texts are bound by an inner logic based more on historical materialism than on magic or the forces of good and evil,[77] Some narratives are described as being essentially science fiction but "with fantasy elements", The term "science fantasy" is sometimes used to describe such material,[78] Horror fiction Main article: Horror fiction Horror fiction is the literature of the unnatural and supernatural, with the aim of unsettling or frightening the reader, sometimes with graphic violence, Historically it has also been known as weird fiction, Although horror is not per se a branch of science fiction, many works of horror literature incorporates science fictional elements, One of the defining classical works of horror, Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein, is the first fully realized work of science fiction, where the manufacture of the monster is given a rigorous science-fictional grounding, The works of Edgar Allan Poe also helped define both the science fiction and the horror genres,[79] Today horror is one of the most popular categories of films,[80] Horror is often mistakenly categorized as science fiction at the point of distribution by libraries, video rental outlets, etc, For example, Syfy (distributed via cable and satellite television in the United States) currently devotes most its air time to horror films with very few science fiction titles,[citation needed] Mystery fiction Main article: Mystery fiction Works in which science and technology are a dominant theme, but based on current reality, may be considered mainstream fiction, Much of the thriller genre would be included, such as the novels of Tom Clancy or Michael Crichton, or the James Bond films,[81] Modernist works from writers like Kurt Vonnegut, Philip K, Dick, and Stanislaw Lem have focused on speculative or existential perspectives on contemporary reality and are on the borderline between SF and the mainstream,[82] According to Robert J, Sawyer, "Science fiction and mystery have a great deal in common, Both prize the intellectual process of puzzle solving, and both require stories to be plausible and hinge on the way things really do work,"[83] Isaac Asimov, Walter Mosley, and other writers incorporate mystery elements in their science fiction, and vice versa, Superhero fiction Main article: Superhero fiction Superhero fiction is a genre characterized by beings with much higher than usual capability and prowess, generally with a desire or need to help the citizens of their chosen country or world by using his or her powers to defeat natural or superpowered threats, Many superhero fiction characters involve themselves (either intentionally or accidentally) with science fiction and fact, including advanced technologies, alien worlds, time travel, and interdimensional travel; but the standards of scientific plausibility are lower than with actual science fiction, Authors of this genre include Stan Lee (co-creator of Spider-Man, the Fantastic Four, the X-Men, and the Hulk); Marv Wolfman, the creator of Blade for Marvel Comics, and The New Teen Titans for DC Comics; Dean Wesley Smith (Smallville, Spider-Man, and X-Men novels) and Superman writers Roger Stern and Elliot S! Maggin, Fandom and community For more details on this topic, see Science fiction fandom, Science fiction fandom is the "community of the literature of ideas,,, the culture in which new ideas emerge and grow before being released into society at large",[84] Members of this community, "fans", are in contact with each other at conventions or clubs, through print or online fanzines, or on the Internet using web sites, mailing lists, and other resources, SF fandom emerged from the letters column in Amazing Stories magazine, Soon fans began writing letters to each other, and then grouping their comments together in informal publications that became known as fanzines,[85] Once they were in regular contact, fans wanted to meet each other, and they organized local clubs, In the 1930s, the first science fiction conventions gathered fans from a wider area,[86] Conventions, clubs, and fanzines were the dominant form of fan activity, or "fanac", for decades, until the Internet facilitated communication among a much larger population of interested people, Awards For more details on this topic, see List of science fiction awards, Among the most respected awards for science fiction are the Hugo Award, presented by the World Science Fiction Society at Worldcon; the Nebula Award, presented by SFWA and voted on by the community of authors; and the John W, Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel and Theodore Sturgeon Memorial Award for short fiction, One notable award for science fiction films is the Saturn Award, It is presented annually by The Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror Films, There are national awards, like Canada's Aurora Award, regional awards, like the Endeavour Award presented at Orycon for works from the Pacific Northwest, special interest or subgenre awards like the Chesley Award for art or the World Fantasy Award for fantasy, Magazines may organize reader polls, notably the Locus Award, Conventions, clubs, and organizations For more details on this topic, see Science fiction conventions, Pamela Dean reading at Minicon Conventions (in fandom, shortened as "cons"), are held in cities around the world, catering to a local, regional, national, or international membership, General-interest conventions cover all aspects of science fiction, while others focus on a particular interest like media fandom, filking, etc, Most are organized by volunteers in non-profit groups, though most media-oriented events are organized by commercial promoters, The convention's activities are called the "program", which may include panel discussions, readings, autograph sessions, costume masquerades, and other events, Activities that occur throughout the convention are not part of the program; these commonly include a dealer's room, art show, and hospitality lounge (or "con suites"),[87] Conventions may host award ceremonies; Worldcons present the Hugo Awards each year, SF societies, referred to as "clubs" except in formal contexts, form a year-round base of activities for science fiction fans, They may be associated with an ongoing science fiction convention, or have regular club meetings, or both, Most groups meet in libraries, schools and universities, community centers, pubs or restaurants, or the homes of individual members, Long-established groups like the New England Science Fiction Association and the Los Angeles Science Fantasy Society have clubhouses for meetings and storage of convention supplies and research materials,[88] The Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA) was founded by Damon Knight in 1965 as a non-profit organization to serve the community of professional science fiction authors,[70] 24 years after his essay "Unite or Fie!" had led to the organization of the National Fantasy Fan Federation, Fandom has helped incubate related groups, including media fandom,[89] the Society for Creative Anachronism,[90] gaming,[91] filking, and furry fandom,[92] Fanzines and online fandom For more details on this topic, see Science fiction fanzine, The first science fiction fanzine, The Comet, was published in 1930,[93] Fanzine printing methods have changed over the decades, from the hectograph, the mimeograph, and the ditto machine, to modern photocopying, Distribution volumes rarely justify the cost of commercial printing, Modern fanzines are printed on computer printers or at local copy shops, or they may only be sent as email, The best known fanzine (or "'zine") today is Ansible, edited by David Langford, winner of numerous Hugo awards, Other fanzines to win awards in recent years include File 770, Mimosa, and Plokta,[94] Artists working for fanzines have risen to prominence in the field, including Brad W, Foster, Teddy Harvia, and Joe Mayhew; the Hugos include a category for Best Fan Artists,[94] The earliest organized fandom online was the SF Lovers community, originally a mailing list in the late 1970s with a text archive file that was updated regularly,[95] In the 1980s, Usenet groups greatly expanded the circle of fans online, In the 1990s, the development of the World-Wide Web exploded the community of online fandom by orders of magnitude, with thousands and then literally millions of web sites devoted to science fiction and related genres for all media,[88] Most such sites are small, ephemeral, and/or very narrowly focused, though sites like SF Site offer a broad range of references and reviews about science fiction, Fan fiction For more details on this topic, see Fan fiction, Fan fiction, known to aficionados as "fanfic", is non-commercial fiction created by fans in the setting of an established book, film, video game, or television series,[96] This modern meaning of the term should not be confused with the traditional (pre-1970s) meaning of "fan fiction" within the community of fandom, where the term meant original or parody fiction written by fans and published in fanzines, often with members of fandom as characters therein ("faan fiction"), Examples of this would include the Goon Defective Agency stories, written st*rting in 1956 by Irish fan John Berry and published in his and Arthur Thomson's fanzine Retribution, In the last few years, sites have appeared such as Orion's Arm and Galaxiki, which encourage collaborative development of science fiction universes, In some cases, the copyright owners of the books, films, or television series have instructed their lawyers to issue "cease and desist" letters to fans, Science fiction studies For more details on this topic, see Science fiction studies, The study of science fiction, or science fiction studies, is the critical assessment, interpretation, and discussion of science fiction literature, film, new media, fandom, and fan fiction, Science fiction scholars take science fiction as an object of study in order to better understand it and its relationship to science, technology, politics, and culture-at-large, Science fiction studies has a long history dating back to the turn of the 20th century, but it was not until later that science fiction studies solidified as a discipline with the publication of the academic journals Extrapolation (1959), Foundation - The International Review of Science Fiction (1972), and Science Fiction Studies (1973), and the establishment of the oldest organizations devoted to the study of science fiction, the Science Fiction Research Association and the Science Fiction Foundation, in 1970, The field has grown considerably since the 1970s with the establishment of more journals, organizations, and conferences with ties to the science fiction scholarship community, and science fiction degree-granting programs such as those offered by the University of Liverpool and Kansas University, The National Science Foundation has conducted surveys of "Public Attitudes and Public Understanding" of "Science Fiction and Pseudoscience",[97] They write that "Interest in science fiction may affect the way people think about or relate to science,,,,one study found a strong relationship between preference for science fiction novels and support for the space program,,,The same study also found that students who read science fiction are much more likely than other students to believe that contacting extraterrestrial civilizations is both possible and desirable (Bainbridge 1982),[98] Science fiction as serious literature Mary Shelley wrote a number of science fiction novels including Frankenstein, and is treated as a major Romantic writer,[99] Many science fiction works have received widespread critical acclaim including Childhood's End and Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (the inspiration for the movie Blade Runner), A number of respected writers of mainstream literature have written science fiction, including Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four, Anthony Burgess' A Clockwork Orange and Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale, Nobel Laureate Doris Lessing wrote a series of SF novels, Canopus in Argos, and nearly all of Kurt Vonnegut's works contain science fiction premises or themes, The scholar Tom Shippey asks a perennial question of science fiction: "What is its relationship to fantasy fiction, is its readership still dominated by male adolescents, is it a taste which will appeal to the mature but non-eccentric literary mind?"[100] In her much reprinted essay "Science Fiction and Mrs Brown,"[101] the science fiction writer Ursula K, Le Guin has approached an answer by first citing the essay written by the English author Virginia Woolf entitled "Mr Bennett and Mrs Brown" in which she states: I believe that all novels, … deal with character, and that it is to express character – not to preach doctrines, sing songs, or celebrate the glories of the British Empire, that the form of the novel, so clumsy, verbose, and undramatic, so rich, elastic, and alive, has been evolved … The great novelists have brought us to see whatever they wish us to see through some character, Otherwise they would not be novelists, but poets, historians, or pamphleteers, Le Guin argues that these criteria may be successfully applied to works of science fiction and so answers in the affirmative her rhetorical question posed at the beginning of her essay: "Can a science fiction writer write a novel?" Tom Shippey[100] in his essay does not dispute this answer but identifies and discusses the essential differences that exists between a science fiction novel and one written outside the field, To this end, he compares George Orwell's Coming Up for Air with Frederik Pohl and C, M, Kornbluth's The Space Merchants and concludes that the basic building block and distinguishing feature of a science fiction novel is the presence of the novum, a term Darko Suvin adapts from Ernst Bloch and defines as "a discrete piece of information recognizable as not-true, but also as not-unlike-true, not-flatly- (and in the current state of knowledge) impossible",[102] In science fiction the style of writing is often relatively clear and straightforward compared to classical literature, Orson Scott Card, an author of both science fiction and non-SF fiction, has postulated that in science fiction the message and intellectual significance of the work is contained within the story itself and, therefore, there need not be stylistic gimmicks or literary games; but that many writers and critics confuse clarity of language with lack of artistic merit, In Card's words: ,,,a great many writers and critics have based their entire careers on the premise that anything that the general public can understand without mediation is worthless drivel, [,,,] If everybody came to agree that stories should be told this clearly, the professors of literature would be out of job, and the writers of obscure, encoded fiction would be, not honored, but pitied for their impenetrability,"[103] Science fiction author and physicist Gregory Benford has declared that: "SF is perhaps the defining genre of the twentieth century, although its conquering armies are still camped outside the Rome of the literary citadels,"[104] This sense of exclusion was articulated by Jonathan Lethem in an essay published in the Village Voice entitled "Close Encounters: The Squandered Promise of Science Fiction,"[105] Lethem suggests that the point in 1973 when Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow was nominated for the Nebula Award, and was passed over in favor of Arthur C, Clarke's Rendezvous with Rama, stands as "a hidden tombstone marking the death of the hope that SF was about to merge with the mainstream," Among the responses to Lethem was one from the editor of the Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction who asked: "When is it [the SF genre] ever going to realize it can't win the game of trying to impress the mainstream?"[106] On this point the journalist and author David Barnett has remarked:[107] The ongoing, endless war between "literary" fiction and "genre" fiction has well-defined lines in the sand, Genre's foot soldiers think that literary fiction is a collection of meaningless but prettily drawn pictures of the human condition, The literary guard consider genre fiction to be crass, commercial, whizz-bang potboilers, Or so it goes, Barnett, in an earlier essay had pointed to a new development in this "endless war":[108] What do novels about a journey across post-apocalyptic America, a clone waitress rebelling against a future society, a world-girdling pipe of special gas keeping mutant creatures at bay, a plan to rid a colonizable new world of dinosaurs, and genetic engineering in a collapsed civilization have in common? They are all most definitely not science fiction, Literary readers will probably recognise The Road by Cormac McCarthy, one of the sections of Cloud Atlas by David Mitchell, The Gone-Away World by Nick Harkaway, The Stone Gods by Jeanette Winterson and Oryx and Crake by Margaret Atwood from their descriptions above, All of these novels use the tropes of what most people recognize as science fiction, but their authors or publishers have taken great pains to ensure that they are not categorized as such, Science fiction world-wide Although perhaps most developed as a genre and community in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, science fiction is a worldwide phenomenon, Organisations devoted to promotion and even translation in particular countries are commonplace, as are country- or language-specific genre awards, Africa and African diaspora Mohammed Dib, an Algerian writer, wrote a science fiction allegory about his nation's politics, Qui se souvient de la mer ("Who Remembers the Sea?") in 1962,[109] Masimba Musodza, a Zimbabwean author, published MunaHacha Maive Nei? the first science-fiction novel in the Shona language,[110] which also holds the distinction of being the first novel in the Shona language to appear as an ebook first before it came out in print, In South Africa, a movie titled District 9 came out in 2009, an apartheid allegory featuring extraterrestrial life forms, produced by Peter Jackson, African American author, Octavia Butler, contributes to the genre of African Science Fiction, She is the author of the Patternist series, Kindred, Lilith's Brood, and the Parable series,[citation needed] Science fiction examines society through shifting power structures (such as the shift of power from humanity to alien overlords), African science fiction often uses this genre norm to situate slavery and the slave trade as an alien abduction, Commonalities in experiences with unknown languages, customs, and culture lend themselves well to this comparison, The subgenre also commonly employs the mechanism of time travel to examine the effects of slavery and forced emigration on the individual and the family,[citation needed] Asia and the Middle East Main articles: Bengali science fiction, Science fiction in China, and Japanese science fiction Indian science fiction, defined loosely as science fiction by writers of Indian descent, began with the English-language publication of Kylas Chundar Dutt's A Journal of Forty-Eight Hours in the Year 1945 in the Calcutta Literary Gazette (June 6, 1835), Since this story was intended as a political polemic, credit for the first science fiction story is often given to later Bengali authors such as Jagadananda Roy, Hemlal Dutta and the polymath Jagadish Chandra Bose (see Bengali science fiction), Similar traditions exist in Hindi, Marathi, Tamil and English,[111] In English, the modern era of Indian speculative fiction began with the works of authors such as Samit Basu, Payal Dhar, Vandana Singh and Anil Menon, Works such as Amitav Ghosh's The Calcutta Chromosome and Salman Rushdie's Grimus and Boman Desai's The Memory of Elephants are generally classified as magic realist works but make essential use of SF tropes and techniques, Modern science fiction in China mainly depends on the magazine Science Fiction World, Many famous works were published in installments in it originally, including the most successful fiction Three Body, written by Liu Cixin, Chalomot Be'aspamia is an Israeli magazine of short science fiction and fantasy stories, The Prophecies Of Karma, published in 2011, is advertised as the first work of science fiction by an Arabic author, the Libanese writer Nael Gharzeddine, Europe Main articles: Science fiction in Croatia, Czech science fiction and fantasy, French science fiction, Norwegian science fiction, Science fiction in Poland, Romanian science fiction, Science fiction in Russia, Science fiction in Serbia, and Spanish science fiction Germany and Austria Current well-known SF authors from Germany are five-time Kurd-Laßwitz-Award winner Andreas Eschbach, whose books The Carpet Makers and Eine Billion Dollar are big successes, and Frank Schätzing, who in his book The Swarm mixes elements of the science thriller with SF elements to an apocalyptic scenario, The most prominent German-speaking author, according to Die Zeit, is Austrian Herbert W, Franke, In 1920's Germany produced a number of critically acclaimed high-budget science fiction and horror films, Metropolis by director Fritz Lang is credited as one of the most influential science fiction films ever made,[112][113][114] A well known science fiction book series in German is Perry Rhodan, which st*rted in 1961, Having sold over one billion copies (in pulp format), it claims to be the most successful science fiction book series ever written worldwide,[115] France, other Francophone countries, and Québec In the French speaking world, for the most part, the colloquial use of the term sci-fi[116] is an accepted anglicism for the word science fiction, This probably stems from the fact that science fiction writing never expanded to the extent it did in the English world, particularly with the dominance of the United States, Nevertheless, France has made a tremendous contribution to science fiction in its seminal stages of development, Jules Verne, a 19th French novelist known for his pioneering science fiction works(Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, A Journey to the Center of the Earth, From the Earth to the Moon) is the prime representative of the French legacy of science fiction, Although the term "science fiction" is understood in France their penchant for the "weird and wacky" has a long tradition and is sometimes called "le culte du merveilleux", This uniquely French tradition certainly encompasses what the Anglophone world would call French science fiction but also ranges across fairies, Dada-ism and Surrealisme, Some more recent and famous French science fiction novels and short stories include those written by René Barjavel and Robert Merle, for example,[citation needed] In Belgian and French films, science-fiction is represented, but not nearly as much as drama, comedy, or historical film, In Belgian and French comic books, on the other hand, science-fiction is, among other things, a well established (and often pessimistic) genre,[citation needed] Among the notable French science fiction comics, there is Valerian et Laureline by Pierre Christin and Jean-Claude Mézières, a space opera franchise lasting since 1967, Metal Hurlant magazine (known in US as Heavy Metal) was one of the largest contributors to Francophone science-fiction comics, Its major authors include Jean 'Moebius' Giraud, creator of Arzach, Chilean Alejandro Jodorowsky, who created a series of comics, including L'Incal and Les Metabarons, set in Jodoverse, and Enki Bilal with Nikopol Trilogy, Giraud also contributed to French SF animation, collaborating with René Laloux on several animated features, Many artists from neighbouring coutries, such as Spain and Italy, create science fiction and fantasy comics in French aimed at a Franco-Belgian market[citation needed], In the case of Canada's Québec, Élisabeth Vonarburg and other authors developed a related tradition of French-Canadian SF, The Prix Boreal was established in 1979 to honour Canadian science fiction works in French, The Aurora Awards (briefly preceded by the Casper Award) were founded in 1980 to recognise and promote the best works of Canadian science fiction in both French and English, Also, due to Canada's bilingualism and the US publishing almost exclusively in English, translation of science fiction prose into French thrives and runs nearly parallel upon a book's publishing in the original English, A sizeable market also exists within Québec for European-written Francophone science fiction literature, Russia, the Soviet Union and post-Soviet states Main article: Russian science fiction and fantasy Soviet stamp, part of a 1967 series depicting science fiction images, The caption reads: "On the moon, A space fantasy" Although Russians made their first attempts in science fiction long before the Revolution,[117] it was the Soviet era that became the genre's golden age, Soviet writers were prolific,[118] despite being sometimes hampered by state censorship, Early Soviet writers, such as Alexander Belayev, Alexey N, Tolstoy and Vladimir Obruchev, employed Vernian/Wellsian hard science fiction based on scientific predictions,[119] The most notable books of the era include Belayev's, Amphibian Man and Professor Dowell's Head; Tolstoy's Aelita and Engineer Garin's Death Ray, Early Soviet science fiction was influenced by communist ideology and often featured a leftist agenda or anti-capitalist satire,[120][121][122] Those few early Soviet books that challenged the communist worldview and satirized the Soviets, such as Yevgeny Zamyatin's dystopia We or Mikhail Bulgakov's Heart of a Dog and Fatal Eggs, were banned from publishing until 1980s, although they still circulated in fan-made copies, In the second half of the 20th century, a new generation of writers developed a more complex approach, Social science fiction, concerned with philosophy, ethics, utopian and dystopian ideas, became the prevalent subgenre,[123] The breakthrough is considered to have been st*rted by Ivan Yefremov's utopian novel Andromeda Nebula (1957), He was soon followed by brothers Arkady and Boris Strugatsky, who explored darker themes and social satire in their Noon Universe novels, such as Hard to be a God (1964) and Prisoners of Power (1969), as well as in their science fantasy trilogy Monday Begins on Saturday (1964), A good share of Soviet science fiction was aimed at children, Probably the best known[119][124] was Kir Bulychov, who created Alisa Selezneva (1965-2003), a children's space adventure series about a teenage girl from the future, After the fall of the Soviet Union, science fiction in the former Soviet republics is still written mostly in the Russian language, which allows an appeal to a broader audience, Among the most notable post-Soviet authors are H, L, Oldie, Sergey Lukyanenko, Alexander Zorich and Vadim Panov,[125] Oceania Main article: Science fiction in Australia Australia: David G, Hartwell noted that while there is perhaps "nothing essentially Australian about Australian science-fiction", many Australian science-fiction (and fantasy and horror) writers are in fact international English language writers, and their work is commonly published worldwide, This is further explainable by the fact that the Australian inner market is small (with Australian population being around 21 million), and sales abroad are crucial to most Australian writers,[126][127] North America Main articles: Canadian science fiction and Science fiction in the United States Latin America Main article: Science fiction in Latin America Although there is still some controversy as to when science fiction began in Latin America, the earliest works date from the late 19th century, All published in 1875, O Doutor Benignus by the Brazilian Augusto Emílio Zaluar, El Maravilloso Viaje del Sr, Nic-Nac by the Argentinian Eduardo Holmberg, and Historia de un Muerto by the Cuban Francisco Calcagno are three of the earliest novels which appeared in the continent,[128] Up to the 1960s, science fiction was the work of isolated writers who did not identify themselves with the genre, but rather used its elements to criticize society, promote their own agendas or tap into the public's interest in pseudo-sciences, It received a boost of respectability after authors such as Horacio Quiroga and Jorge Luis Borges used its elements in their writings, This, in turn, led to the permanent emergence of science fiction in the 1960s and mid 1970s, notably in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Cuba, Magic realism enjoyed parallel growth in Latin America, with a strong regional emphasis on using the form to comment on social issues, similar to social science fiction and speculative fiction in the English world, Economic turmoil and the suspicious eye of the dictatorial regimes in place reduced the genre's dynamism for the following decade, In the mid-1980s, it became increasingly popular once more, Although led by Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, Latin America now hosts dedicated communities and writers with an increasing use of regional elements to set them apart from English-language science-fiction,[129] See also Fantastic art List of science fiction authors List of science fiction films List of science fiction novels List of science fiction television programs List of science fiction themes List of science fiction and fantasy artists List of science fiction universes Non-Aristotelian logic—use in science fiction Science fiction libraries and museums Sense of wonder Skiffy Transhumanism (a school of thought profoundly inspired by SF) THANKS FOR LOOKING! jmc2 Track Page Views With Auctiva's FREE Counter Condition: Comics are in fine condition and come bagged and boarded., Main Character: Conan, Grade: 6.0 FN, Series: Various. See Details in Listing, Issue Number: Various. See Details in Listing, Publisher: Marvel, Publication Date: 1970, Signed: No, Country/Region of Manufacture: United States, Certification: Uncertified, Certification Number: FN 6.0

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