☆4 RARE FN/VF DC COMIC BOOKS:LEGION OF SUPERHEROES(2nd Series)#311 315 320 326!☆
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☆4 RARE FN/VF DC COMIC BOOKS:LEGION OF SUPERHEROES(2nd Series)#311 315 320 326!☆
Comes Bagged and boarded. 7.0 FN/VF Condition
TALES OF THE Legion of Superheroes 311 315 320 326
ISSUE 311: Cover pencils by Keith Giffen, inks by Larry Mahlstedt. Destruction by Design, script by Keith Giffen (plot) and Paul Levitz (plot, script), pencils by Keith Giffen, inks by Larry Mahlstedt; Brainiac 5 finally separates Computo from Danielle Foccart, which destroys the Legion Clubhouse; However, he has also brought Computo under his control and together they re-create the building, bigger and better than before. A Shared Destiny, script by Keith Giffen (plot) and Paul Levitz (plot, script), pencils by Gene Colan, inks by Larry Mahlstedt; Wildfire blunders into Dawnstar's quest for her soulmate, to the dismay of her parents, but she finally accepts him and their deepening relationship. Legionnaire symbol guide and Interlac alphabet article by Paul Levitz. 36 pgs. Cover price $0.75.
ISSUE 315: "Judgment!" The Legionnaires take on the Dark Circle and Ontiir meets his maker! Continued from last issue. Written by Paul Levitz and Keith Giffen, with art by Terry Shoemaker and Karl Kesel. Plus: Continuing the origin of the White Witch in the 8-page "The Forging." Part 2 of 3. Written by Paul Levitz and Mindy Newell, with art by George Tuska and Karl Kesel. Cover by Terry Shoemaker and Karl Kesel. Cover price $0.75.
ISSUE 320: "Magpie Complex." An archcriminal stalks Legion Headquarters--while Sun Boy's in for a big surprise! Written by Paul Levitz and Mindy Newell, with art by Dan Jurgens and Karl Kesel. (Notes: Pages 9 & 10 are a cutaway map of Legion HQ; Monitor and Lyla in pre-Crisis On Infinite Earths #1 cameo appearance (they also appear in #319).) Plus: The 8-page back-up tale "Triangle?" Written by Paul Levitz and Mindy Newell, with art by Dan Jurgens and Karl Kesel. (Note: Cameos by Charles & Kitty Storm, who uncannily resemble Charles Xavier and Kitty Pryde.) Cover by Jurgens and Kesel. Cover price $0.75.
ISSUE 326: 2.60 Add to cart Fine Add to cart $2.60 Add to cart Very Good Add to cart $1.70 Beginning of deluxe format reprints. Reprints Legion of Super Heroes (1984 3rd Series) #1. Part 1 of a 5-part epic! The Legion of Super-Villains are back! Their objective: To kill the Legionnaires one by one! Written by Paul Levitz and Keith Giffen, with art and cover by Giffen and Larry Mahlstedt. Cover price $0.75.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT COMIC BOOKSComic bookFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaIt has been suggested that American comic book be merged into this article or section, (Discuss) Proposed since April 2012,The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject, Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page, (August 2010)Comic bookAction Comics #1Comics Comics studiesEducation History GlossaryTechniqueCartooning Decompression FumettiMediaComic book Comic strip Gag cartoonGraphic novel WebcomicCommunityAwards Collecting Publishing companies Comics Portalv t eThis article is about periodicals containing comics, For the comics medium, see Comics,A comic book or comicbook, also called comic magazine and often shortened to simply comic or comics, is a magazine made up of "comics"—narrative artwork in the form of separate panels that represent individual scenes, often accompanied by dialog (usually in word balloons, emblematic of the comic book art form) as well as including brief descriptive prose, The first comic book appeared in the United States in 1933, reprinting the earlier newspaper comic strips, which established many of the story-telling devices used in comics, The term "comic book" arose because the first comic book reprinted humor comic strips, Despite their name, comic books are not necessarily humorous in tone; modern comic books tell stories in many genres,Contents 1 American comic books1,1 Underground comic books1,2 Alternative comics1,3 Graphic novels1,4 Digital graphic novels1,5 Comic book collecting2 European comics2,1 Franco-Belgian comics2,2 British comics2,3 Italian comics3 Japanese comics (manga)3,1 Doujinshi4 See also5 References6 Further reading7 External linksAmerican comic booksRulah, Jungle Goddess No, 24 (March 1949): An example of a non-superhero jungle-girl character, Cover artist(s) unknown,Adventures into Darkness: Horror storiesSince the introduction of the comic book format in 1933 with the publication of Famous Funnies, the United States has produced the most titles, along with British comics and Japanese manga, in terms of quantity of titles,Cultural historians divide the career of the comic book in the U,S, into several ages or historical eras:Comic book historians continue to debate the exact boundaries of these eras, but they have come to an agreement, the terms for which originated in the fan press, Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover—making it the first known American prototype comic book, The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry, and is the st*rt of the Golden Age of comics, Historians have proposed several names for the Age before Superman, most commonly dubbing it the Platinum Age,While the Platinum Age saw the first use of the term "comic book" (The Yellow Kid in McFadden's Flats (1897)), the first known full-color comic (The Blackberries (1901)), and the first monthly comic book (Comics Monthly (1922)), it was not until the Golden Age that the archetype of the superhero would originate,The Silver Age of comic books is generally considered to date from the first successful revival of the dormant superhero form—the debut of Robert Kanigher and Carmine Infantino's Flash in Showcase No, 4 (September/October 1956), The Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Stan Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man,The precise beginnings of the Bronze and Copper Ages remain less well-defined, Suggested st*rting points for the Bronze Age of comics include Roy Thomas and Barry Windsor-Smith's Conan No, 1 (October 1970), Denny O'Neil and Neal Adams' Green Lantern/Green Arrow No, 76 (April 1970), or Stan Lee and Gil Kane's The Amazing Spider-Man No, 96 (May 1971; the non-Comics Code issue), The st*rt of the Copper Age (apprx, 1984–2000) has even more potential st*rting points, but is generally agreed to be the publication of Frank Miller's Batman: The Dark Knight Returns and Alan Moore's Watchmen by DC Comics in 1986, as well as the publication of DC's Crisis on Infinite Earths, written by Marv Wolfman with pencils by George Pérez,A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with the psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent (1954), which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books, In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U,S, comic book industry set up the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the "Comics Code" in the same year,Underground comic booksMain article: Underground comixIn the late 1960s and early 1970s a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comics, Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time, Many had an uninhibited, often irreverent style; their frank depictions of nudity, sex, profanity, and politics had no parallel outside their precursors, the pornographic and even more obscure "Tijuana bibles", Underground comics were almost never sold at news stands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order,Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic,Alternative comicsMain article: Alternative comicsThe rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U,S, The first such comics included the anthology series st*r Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, and Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman and Robert Pulcini adapted into a 2003 film, Some independent comics continued in the tradition of underground comics, though their content was generally less explicit, and others resembled the output of mainstream publishers in format and genre but were published by smaller artist-owned companies or by single artists, A few (notably RAW) were experimental attempts to bring comics closer to the status of fine art,During the 1970s the "small press" culture grew and diversified, By the 1980s, several independent publishers, such as Pacific, Eclipse, First, Comico, and Fantagraphics had st*rted releasing a wide range of styles and formats—from color superhero, detective, and science fiction comic books to black-and-white magazine-format stories of Latin American magical realism,A number of small publishers in the 1990s changed the format and distribution of their comics to more closely resemble non-comics publishing, The "minicomics" form, an extremely informal version of self-publishing, arose in the 1980s and became increasingly popular among artists in the 1990s, despite reaching an even more limited audience than the small press,Small publishers regularly releasing titles include Avatar Comics, Hyperwerks, Raytoons, and Terminal Press, buoyed by such advances in printing technology as digital print-on-demand,Graphic novelsMain article: Graphic novelIn 1964, Richard Kyle coined the term "graphic novel" to distinguish newly translated European works from genre-driven subject matter common in American comics, Precursors of the form existed by the 1920s, which saw a revival of the medieval woodcut tradition by Belgian Frans Masereel, American Lynd Ward and others, In 1950, St, John Publications produced the digest-sized, adult-oriented "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust, a 128-page digest by pseudonymous writer "Drake Waller" (Arnold Drake and Leslie Waller), penciler Matt Baker and inker Ray Osrin, touted as "an original full-length novel" on its cover, In 1971, writer-artist Gil Kane and collaborators devised the paperback "comics novel" Blackmark, Will Eisner popularized the term "graphic novel" when he used it on the cover of the paperback edition of his work A Contract with God, and Other Tenement Stories in 1978,Digital graphic novelsSee also: Digital comicsComic book collectingMain article: Comic book collectingThis section requires expansion, (April 2012)Some rare comic books include copies of the unreleased Motion Picture Funnies Weekly No, 1 from 1939, Eight copies, plus one without a cover, emerged in the estate of the deceased publisher in 1974, The "Pay Copy" of this book sold for $43,125 in a 2005 Heritage auction,The most valuable American comics have combined rarity and quality with the first appearances of popular and enduring characters, Four comic books to have sold for over $1 million USD as of December 2010, including two examples of Action Comics No, 1, the first appearance of Superman, both sold privately through online dealer ComicConnect,com in 2010, and Detective Comics No, 27, the first appearance of Batman, via public auction,Misprints, promotional comic-dealer incentive printings, and similar issues with extremely low distribution also generally have scarcity value, The rarest modern comic books include the original press run of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen No, 5, which DC executive Paul Levitz recalled and pulped due to the appearance of a vintage Victorian era advertisement for "Marvel Douche", which the publisher considered offensive; only 100 copies exist, most of which have been CGC graded, (See Recalled comics for more pulped, recalled, and erroneous comics,)In 2000, a company named CGC began to "slab" comics, encasing them in a thick plastic and giving them a numeric grade,European comicsMain article: European comicsFranco-Belgian comicsMain article: Franco-Belgian comicsFrance and Belgium have a long tradition in comics and comic books, called BDs (an abbreviation of bande dessinées) in French and strips in Dutch, Belgian comic books originally written in Dutch show the influence of the Francophone "Franco-Belgian" comics, but have their own distinct style,The name la bande dessinée derives from the original description of the art form as drawn strips (the phrase literally translates as "the drawn strip"), analogous to the sequence of images in a film strip, As in its English equivalent, the word "bande" can be applied to both film and comics, Significantly, the French-language term contains no indication of subject-matter, unlike the American terms "comics" and "funnies", which imply an art form not to be taken seriously, The distinction of comics as le neuvième art (literally, "the ninth art") is prevalent in French scholarship on the form, as is the concept of comics criticism and scholarship itself, Relative to the respective size of their populations, the innumerable authors in France and Belgium publish a high volume of comic books, In North America, the more serious Franco-Belgian comics are often seen as equivalent to graphic novels, but whether they are long or short, bound or in magazine format, in Europe there is no need for a more sophisticated term, as the art's name does not itself imply something frivolous,In France, authors control the publication of most comics, The author works within a self-appointed time-frame, and it is common for readers to wait six months or as long as two years between installments, Most books first appear in print as a hardcover book, typically with 48, 56, or 64 pages,British comicsMain article: British comicsOriginally the same size as a usual comic book in the U,S, (although lacking the glossy cover), the British comic has adopted a magazine size, with The Beano and The Dandy the last to adopt this size (in the 1980s), Although the British generally speak of "a comic" or of "a comic magazine", and they also historically spoke of "a comic paper", Some comics, such as Judge Dredd and other 2000 AD titles, have been published in a tabloid form,Although Ally Sloper's Half Holiday (1884), the first comic published in Britain, was aimed at an adult market, publishers quickly targeted a younger market, which has led to most publications being for children and created an association in the public's mind of comics as somewhat juvenile,Popular titles within the UK have included The Beano, The Dandy, The Eagle, 2000 AD, and Viz, Underground comics and "small press" titles have also been published within the UK, notably Oz and Escape Magazine,The content of Action, another title aimed at children and launched in the mid-1970s, became the subject of discussion in the House of Commons, Although on a smaller scale than similar investigations in the U,S,, such concerns led to a moderation of content published within British comics, Such moderation never became formalized to the extent of promulgating a code, nor did it last long,The UK has also established a healthy market in the reprinting and repackaging of material, notably material originating in the U,S, The lack of reliable supplies of American comic books led to a variety of black-and-white reprints, including Marvel's monster comics of the 1950s, Fawcett's Captain Marvel, and other characters such as Sheena, Mandrake the Magician, and the Phantom, Several reprint companies were involved in repackaging American material for the British market, notably the importer and distributor Thorpe & Porter,Marvel Comics established a UK office in 1972, DC Comics and Dark Horse Comics also opened offices in the 1990s, The repackaging of European material has occurred less frequently, although the Tintin and Asterix serials have been successfully translated and repackaged in softcover books,At Christmas time, publishers repackage and commission material for comic annuals, printed and bound as hardcover A4-size books; Rupert supplies a famous example of the British comic annual, DC Thomson also repackages The Broons and Oor Wullie strips in softcover A4-size books for the holiday season,On 19 March 2012, the British postal service, the Royal Mail, released a set of stamps depicting British comic-book characters and series, The collection featured The Beano, The Dandy, Eagle, The Topper, Roy of the Rovers, Bunty, Buster, Valiant, Twinkle and 2000 AD,Italian comicsMain article: Italian comicsIn Italy, comics (known in Italian as fumetti) made their debut as humor strips at the end of the 19th century, and later evolved into adventure stories, After World War II, however, artists like Hugo Pratt and Guido Crepax exposed Italian comics to an international audience, Popular comic books such as Diabolik or the Bonelli line—namely Tex Willer or Dylan Dog—remain best-sellers,Mainstream comics are usually published on a monthly basis, in a black-and-white digest size format, with approximately 100 to 132 pages, Collections of classic material for the most famous characters, usually with more than 200 pages, are also common, Author comics are published in the French BD format, with an example being Pratt's Corto Maltese,Italian cartoonists show the influence of comics from other countries, including France, Belgium, Spain, and Argentina, Italy is also famous for being one of the foremost producers of Walt Disney comic stories outside the U,S, Donald Duck's superhero alter ego, Paperinik, known in English as Superduck, was created in Italy,Japanese comics (manga)This section may not properly summarize its corresponding main article, Specific concerns can be found on the Talk page, Please help us improve this article if you can,Main article: MangaThe first comic books in Japan appeared during the 18th century in the form of woodblock-printed booklets containing short stories drawn from folk tales, legends, and historical accounts, told in a simple visual-verbal idiom, Known as "red books" (?? akahon?), "black books" (?? kurobon?), and "blue books" (?? aohon?), these were written primarily for less literate readers, However, with the publication in 1775 of Koikawa Harumachi's comic book Master Flashgold's Splendiferous Dream (???????? Kinkin sensei eiga no yume?), an adult form of comic book originated, which required greater literacy and cultural sophistication, This was known as the kibyoshi (????, lit, yellow cover), Published in thousands of copies, the kibyoshi may have been the earliest fully realized comic book for adults in world literary history, Approximately 2,000 titles remain extant,Modern comic books in Japan developed from a mixture of these earlier comic books and of woodblock prints ukiyo-e (????) with Western styles of drawing, They took their current form shortly after World War II, They are usually published in black-and-white, except for the covers, which are usually printed in four colors, although occasionally, the first few pages may also be printed in full color, The term manga means "random (or whimsical) pictures", and first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santo Kyoden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai (?????) (1798) and Aikawa Minwa's Comic Sketches of a Hundred Women (1798), During the Meiji period, the term Akahon was also common,Western artists were brought over to teach their students such concepts as line, form, and color; things which had not been regarded as conceptually important in ukiyo-e, as the idea behind the picture was of paramount importance, Manga at this time was referred to as Ponchi-e (Punch-picture) and, like its British counterpart Punch magazine, mainly depicted humor and political satire in short one- or four-picture format,Dr, Osamu Tezuka (1928–1989) further developed this form, Seeing an animated war propaganda film titled Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors (??? ???? Momotaro Umi no Shinpei?) inspired Tezuka to become a comic artist, He introduced episodic storytelling and character development in comic format, in which each story is part of larger story arc, The only text in Tezuka's comics was the characters' dialogue and this further lent his comics a cinematic quality, Inspired by the work of Walt Disney, Tezuka also adopted a style of drawing facial features in which a character's eyes, nose, and mouth are drawn in an extremely exaggerated manner, This style created immediately recognizable expressions using very few lines, and the simplicity of this style allowed Tezuka to be prolific, Tezuka's work generated new interest in the ukiyo-e tradition, in which the image is a representation of an idea, rather than a depiction of reality,Though a close equivalent to the American comic book, manga has historically held a more important place in Japanese culture than comics have in American culture, Japanese society shows a wide respect for manga, both as an art form and as a form of popular literature, Many manga become television shows or short films, As with its American counterpart, some manga has been criticized for its sexuality and violence, although in the absence of official or even industry restrictions on content, artists have freely created manga for every age group and for every topic,Manga magazines—also known as "anthologies"—often run several series concurrently, with approximately 20 to 40 pages allocated to each series per issue, These magazines range from 200 to more than 850 pages each, Manga magazines also contain one-shot comics and a variety of four-panel yonkoma (equivalent to comic strips), Manga series may continue for many years if they are successful, with stories often collected and reprinted in book-sized volumes called tankobon (????, lit, stand-alone book), the equivalent of the American trade paperbacks, These volumes use higher-quality paper and are useful to readers who want to be brought up to date with a series, or to readers who find the cost of the weekly or monthly publications to be prohibitive, Deluxe versions are printed as commemorative or collectible editions, Conversely, old manga titles are also reprinted using lower-quality paper and sold for 120 ¥ (approximately $1 USD) each,DoujinshiMain article: DoujinshiDoujinshi (????, lit, fan magazine), fan-made Japanese comics operate in a far larger market in Japan than the American "underground comics" market; the largest doujinshi fair, Comic Market, attracts 500,000 visitors twice a year,See alsoComics portalCartoonComics StudiesComics vocabularyWebcomicDigital comicsComic book therapy--------------------------------------------------------------------------------SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Science fictionFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia"Scifi" and "Sci Fi" redirect here, For other uses, see Scifi (disambiguation),Speculative fictionAlternate historyWritersFantasy fictionAnimeArtFantastic artFiction magazinesFilmsGenresHistoryLegendary creaturesLiteratureQuests and artifactsRacesTelevisionThemesWorldsWritersHorror fictionAnimeAwardsConventionsFiction magazinesFilmsGenresTelevisionWritersScience fictionAnimeArtistsAwardsConventionsEditorsFandomFiction magazinesGenresHistoryOrganizationsTelevisionThemesWritersOtherInternet Speculative Fiction DatabaseThe Encyclopedia of Science Fiction Speculative fiction portalv t eScience fiction is a genre of fiction with imaginative but more or less plausible content such as settings in the future, futuristic science and technology, space travel, parallel universes, aliens, and paranormal abilities, Exploring the consequences of scientific innovations is one purpose of science fiction, making it a "literature of ideas", Science fiction has been used by authors and film/television program makers as a device to discuss philosophical ideas such as identity, desire, morality and social structure etc,Science fiction is largely based on writing rationally about alternative possible worlds or futures, It is similar to, but differs from fantasy in that, within the context of the story, its imaginary elements are largely possible within scientifically established or scientifically postulated laws of nature (though some elements in a story might still be pure imaginative speculation),The settings for science fiction are often contrary to consensus reality, but most science fiction relies on a considerable degree of suspension of disbelief, which is facilitated in the reader's mind by potential scientific explanations or solutions to various fictional elements, Science fiction elements include:A time setting in the future, in alternative timelines, or in a historical past that contradicts known facts of history or the archaeological record,A spatial setting or scenes in outer space (e,g, spaceflight), on other worlds, or on subterranean earth,Characters that include aliens, mutants, androids, or humanoid robots,Futuristic technology such as ray guns, teleportation machines, and humanoid computers,Scientific principles that are new or that contradict accepted laws of nature, for example time travel, wormholes, or faster-than-light travel,New and different political or social systems, e,g, dystopia, post-scarcity, or a post-apocalyptic situation where organized society has collapsed,Paranormal abilities such as mind control, telepathy, telekinesis, and teleportation,Other universes or dimensions and travel between them,Contents 1 Definitions2 History2,1 The term "sci-fi"2,2 Innovation3 Subgenres3,1 Hard SF3,2 Soft and social SF3,3 Cyberpunk3,4 Time travel3,5 Alternate history3,6 Military SF3,7 Superhuman3,8 Apocalyptic3,9 Space opera3,10 Space Western3,11 Other sub-genres4 Related genres4,1 Speculative fiction, fantasy, and horror4,2 Fantasy4,3 Horror fiction4,4 Mystery fiction4,5 Superhero fiction5 Fandom and community5,1 Awards5,2 Conventions, clubs, and organizations5,3 Fanzines and online fandom5,4 Fan fiction6 Science fiction studies6,1 Science fiction as serious literature7 Science fiction world-wide7,1 Africa and African diaspora7,2 Asia and the Middle East7,3 Europe7,3,1 Germany and Austria7,3,2 France, other Francophone countries, and Québec7,3,3 Russia, the Soviet Union and post-Soviet states7,4 Oceania7,5 North America7,6 Latin America8 See also9 Notes and references9,1 Notes9,2 References10 External linksDefinitionsFor more details on this topic, see Definitions of science fiction,Science fiction is difficult to define, as it includes a wide range of subgenres and themes, Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it", a definition echoed by author Mark C, Glassy, who argues that the definition of science fiction is like the definition of pornography: you don't know what it is, but you know it when you see it, Vladimir Nabokov argued that if we were rigorous with our definitions, Shakespeare's play The Tempest would have to be termed science fiction,According to science fiction writer Robert A, Heinlein, "a handy short definition of almost all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world, past and present, and on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method," Rod Serling's definition is "fantasy is the impossible made probable, Science fiction is the improbable made possible," Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado—or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is", and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no easily delineated limits to science fiction,"HistoryFor more details on this topic, see History of science fiction,As a means of understanding the world through speculation and storytelling, science fiction has antecedents back to mythology, though precursors to science fiction as literature can be seen in Lucian's True History in the 2nd century, some of the Arabian Nights tales, The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter in the 10th century and Ibn al-Nafis' Theologus Autodidactus in the 13th century,A product of the budding Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels was one of the first true science fantasy works, together with Voltaire's Micromégas (1752) and Johannes Kepler's Somnium (1620–1630), Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan consider the latter work the first science fiction story, It depicts a journey to the Moon and how the Earth's motion is seen from there, Another example is Ludvig Holberg's novel Nicolai Klimii iter subterraneum, 1741, (Translated to Danish by Hans Hagerup in 1742 as Niels Klims underjordiske Rejse,) (Eng, Niels Klim's Underground Travels,) Brian Aldiss has argued that Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1818) was the first work of science fiction,Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, in the early 19th century, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science fiction novel; later Edgar Allan Poe wrote a story about a flight to the moon, More examples appeared throughout the 19th century,H, G, WellsThen with the dawn of new technologies such as electricity, the telegraph, and new forms of powered transportation, writers including Jules Verne and H, G, Wells created a body of work that became popular across broad cross-sections of society, Wells' The War of the Worlds (1898) describes an invasion of late Victorian England by Martians using tripod fighting machines equipped with advanced weaponry, It is a seminal depiction of an alien invasion of Earth,In the late 19th century, the term "scientific romance" was used in Britain to describe much of this fiction, This produced additional offshoots, such as the 1884 novella Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions by Edwin Abbott Abbott, The term would continue to be used into the early 20th century for writers such as Olaf Stapledon,Jules VerneIn the early 20th century, pulp magazines helped develop a new generation of mainly American SF writers, influenced by Hugo Gernsback, the founder of Amazing Stories magazine, In 1912 Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long series of Barsoom novels, situated on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero, The 1928 publication of Philip Nolan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419, in Amazing Stories was a landmark event, This story led to comic strips featuring Buck Rogers (1929), Brick Bradford (1933), and Flash Gordon (1934), The comic strips and derivative movie serials greatly popularized science fiction, In the late 1930s, John W, Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, and a critical mass of new writers emerged in New York City in a group called the Futurians, including Isaac Asimov, Damon Knight, Donald A, Wollheim, Frederik Pohl, James Blish, Judith Merril, and others, Other important writers during this period and later, include E,E, (Doc) Smith, Robert A, Heinlein, Arthur C, Clarke, Olaf Stapledon, A, E, van Vogt, Ray Bradbury and Stanislaw Lem, Campbell's tenure at Astounding is considered to be the beginning of the Golden Age of science fiction, characterized by hard SF stories celebrating scientific achievement and progress, This lasted until postwar technological advances, new magazines such as Galaxy under Pohl as editor, and a new generation of writers began writing stories outside the Campbell mode,In the 1950s, the Beat generation included speculative writers such as William S, Burroughs, In the 1960s and early 1970s, writers like Frank Herbert, Samuel R, Delany, Roger Zelazny, and Harlan Ellison explored new trends, ideas, and writing styles, while a group of writers, mainly in Britain, became known as the New Wave for their embrace of a high degree of experimentation, both in form and in content, and a highbrow and self-consciously "literary" or artistic sensibility, In the 1970s, writers like Larry Niven and Poul Anderson began to redefine hard SF, Ursula K, Le Guin and others pioneered soft science fiction,In the 1980s, cyberpunk authors like William Gibson turned away from the optimism and support for progress of traditional science fiction, This dystopian vision of the near future is described in the work of Philip K, Dick, such as Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and We Can Remember It for You Wholesale, which resulted in the films Blade Runner and Total Recall, The st*r Wars franchise helped spark a new interest in space opera, focusing more on story and character than on scientific accuracy, C, J, Cherryh's detailed explorations of alien life and complex scientific challenges influenced a generation of writers, Emerging themes in the 1990s included environmental issues, the implications of the global Internet and the expanding information universe, questions about biotechnology and nanotechnology, as well as a post-Cold War interest in post-scarcity societies; Neal Stephenson's The Diamond Age comprehensively explores these themes, Lois McMaster Bujold's Vorkosigan novels brought the character-driven story back into prominence, The television series st*r Trek: The Next Generation (1987) began a torrent of new SF shows, including three further st*r Trek spin-off shows and Babylon 5, Concern about the rapid pace of technological change crystallized around the concept of the technological singularity, popularized by Vernor Vinge's novel Marooned in Realtime and then taken up by other authors,The term "sci-fi"Forrest J Ackerman used the term sci-fi (analogous to the then-trendy "hi-fi") at UCLA in 1954, As science fiction entered popular culture, writers and fans active in the field came to associate the term with low-budget, low-tech "B-movies" and with low-quality pulp science fiction, By the 1970s, critics within the field such as Terry Carr and Damon Knight were using sci-fi to distinguish hack-work from serious science fiction, and around 1978, Susan Wood and others introduced the pronunciation "skiffy", Peter Nicholls writes that "SF" (or "sf") is "the preferred abbreviation within the community of sf writers and readers", David Langford's monthly fanzine Ansible includes a regular section "As Others See Us" which offers numerous examples of "sci-fi" being used in a pejorative sense by people outside the genre,InnovationScience fiction has criticised developing and future technologies, but also initiates innovation and new technology, This topic has been more often discussed in literary and sociological than in scientific forums, Cinema and media theorist Vivian Sobchack examines the dialogue between science fiction films and the technological imagination, Technology impacts artists and how they portray their fictionalized subjects, but the fictional world gives back to science by broadening imagination, How William Shatner Changed the World is a documentary that gave many real-world examples of actualized technological imaginations, While more prevalent in the early years of science fiction with writers like Arthur C, Clarke, new authors still find ways to make currently impossible technologies seem closer to being realized,SubgenresFor more details on this topic, see Science fiction genre,A categorization of science fiction into various subgenres can be problematic, because these subcategories are not simple pigeonholes, Some works may overlap two or more commonly defined genres, whereas others are beyond the generic boundaries, either outside or between categories, Moreover, the categories and genres used by mass markets and literary criticism differ considerably, One example that straddles science fiction subgenres is Elizabeth Moon's Vatta's War series, which has been described by many as military science fiction but also has elements of space opera,Hard SFMain article: Hard science fictionThis section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013)Arthur C, ClarkeHard science fiction, or "hard SF", is characterized by rigorous attention to accurate detail in quantitative sciences, especially physics, astrophysics, and chemistry, or on accurately depicting worlds that more advanced technology may make possible, Many accurate predictions of the future come from the hard science fiction subgenre, but numerous inaccurate predictions have emerged as well, Some hard SF authors have distinguished themselves as working scientists, including Gregory Benford, Geoffrey A, Landis and David Brin, while mathematician authors include Rudy Rucker and Vernor Vinge, Other noteworthy hard SF authors include Isaac Asimov, Arthur C, Clarke, Hal Clement, Greg Bear, Larry Niven, Robert J, Sawyer, Stephen Baxter, Alastair Reynolds, Charles Sheffield, Ben Bova, Kim Stanley Robinson and Greg Egan,Soft and social SFMain article: Soft science fictionThis section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013)The description "soft" science fiction may describe works based on social sciences such as psychology, economics, political science, sociology, and anthropology, Noteworthy writers in this category include Ursula K, Le Guin and Philip K, Dick, The term can describe stories focused primarily on character and emotion; SFWA Grand Master Ray Bradbury was an acknowledged master of this art, The Eastern Bloc produced a large quantity of social science fiction, including works by Polish authors Stanislaw Lem and Janusz Zajdel, as well as Soviet authors such as the Strugatsky brothers, Kir Bulychov, Yevgeny Zamyatin and Ivan Yefremov, Some writers blur the boundary between hard and soft science fiction,Related to social SF and soft SF are utopian and dystopian stories; George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, and Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale are examples, Satirical novels with fantastic settings such as Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift may also be considered science fiction or speculative fiction,CyberpunkMain article: CyberpunkThis section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013)The cyberpunk genre emerged in the early 1980s; combining cybernetics and punk, the term was coined by author Bruce Bethke for his 1980 short story "Cyberpunk", The time frame is usually near-future and the settings are often dystopian in nature and characterized by misery, Common themes in cyberpunk include advances in information technology and especially the Internet, visually abstracted as cyberspace, artificial intelligence, and prosthetics and post-democratic societal control where corporations have more influence than governments, Nihilism, post-modernism, and film noir techniques are common elements, and the protagonists may be disaffected or reluctant anti-heroes, Noteworthy authors in this genre are William Gibson, Bruce Sterling, Neal Stephenson, and Pat Cadigan, James O'Ehley has called the 1982 film Blade Runner a definitive example of the cyberpunk visual style,Time travelThis section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013)Time travel stories have antecedents in the 18th and 19th centuries, The first major time travel novel was Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, The most famous is H, G, Wells's 1895 novel The Time Machine, which uses a vehicle that allows an operator to travel purposefully and selectively, while Twain's time traveler is struck in the head, The term "time machine", coined by Wells, is now universally used to refer to such a vehicle, Stories of this type are complicated by logical problems such as the grandfather paradox, Time travel continues to be a popular subject in modern science fiction, in print, movies, and television such as the BBC television series Doctor Who,Alternate historyMain article: Alternate historyThis section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013)Alternate (or alternative) history stories are based on the premise that historical events might have turned out differently, These stories may use time travel to change the past, or may simply set a story in a universe with a different history from our own, Classics in the genre include Bring the Jubilee by Ward Moore, in which the South wins the American Civil War, and The Man in the High Castle by Philip K, Dick, in which Germany and Japan win World War II, The Sidewise Award acknowledges the best works in this subgenre; the name is taken from Murray Leinster's 1934 story "Sidewise in Time," Harry Turtledove is one of the most prominent authors in the subgenre and is sometimes called the "master of alternate history",Military SFMain article: Military science fictionThis section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013)Military science fiction is set in the context of conflict between national, interplanetary, or interstellar armed forces; the primary viewpoint characters are usually soldiers, Stories include detail about military technology, procedure, ritual, and history; military stories may use parallels with historical conflicts, Heinlein's st*rship Troopers is an early example, along with the Dorsai novels of Gordon Dickson, Joe Haldeman's The Forever War is a critique of the genre, a Vietnam-era response to the World War II–style stories of earlier authors, Prominent military SF authors include John Ringo, David Drake, David Weber, and S, M, Stirling, The publishing company Baen Books is known for cultivating military science fiction authors,SuperhumanThis section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013)Superhuman stories deal with the emergence of humans who have abilities beyond the norm, This can stem either from natural causes such as in Olaf Stapledon's novel Odd John, and Theodore Sturgeon's More Than Human, or be the result of intentional augmentation such as in A, E, van Vogt's novel Slan, These stories usually focus on the alienation that these beings feel as well as society's reaction to them, These stories have played a role in the real life discussion of human enhancement, Frederik Pohl's Man Plus also belongs to this category,ApocalypticMain article: Apocalyptic fictionThis section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013)Apocalyptic fiction is concerned with the end of civilization through war (On the Beach), pandemic (The Last Man), astronomic impact (When Worlds Collide), ecological disaster (The Wind from Nowhere), or some other general disaster or with a world or civilization after such a disaster, Typical of the genre are George R, Stewart's novel Earth Abides and Pat Frank's novel Alas, Babylon, Apocalyptic fiction generally concerns the disaster itself and the direct aftermath, while post-apocalyptic can deal with anything from the near aftermath (as in Cormac McCarthy's The Road) to 375 years in the future (as in By The Waters of Babylon) to hundreds or thousands of years in the future, as in Russell Hoban's novel Riddley Walker and Walter M, Miller, Jr,'s A Canticle for Leibowitz,Space operaMain article: Space operaThis section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013)Space opera is adventure science fiction set in outer space or on distant planets, The conflict is heroic, and typically on a large scale,Space opera is sometimes used pejoratively, to describe improbable plots, absurd science, and cardboard characters, But it is also used nostalgically, and modern space opera may be an attempt to recapture the sense of wonder of the golden age of science fiction, The pioneer of this subgenre is generally recognized to be Edward E, (Doc) Smith, with his Skylark and Lensman series, L, Ron Hubbard's Battlefield Earth is an example of this subgenre, The st*r Trek television series franchise is often described as space opera that encourages this sense of wonder, in that most of the scripts are generally about peaceful space exploration and examinations of cultural differences rather than about conflict between civilizations, Alastair Reynolds's Revelation Space series, Peter F, Hamilton's Void, Night's Dawn, Pandora's st*r series, Vernor Vinge's A Fire Upon the Deep, A Deepness in the Sky are newer examples of this genre,Space WesternMain article: Space WesternThis section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013)Space Western could be considered a sub-genre of space opera that transposes themes of the American Western books and film to a backdrop of futuristic space frontiers, These stories typically involve "frontier" colony worlds (colonies that have only recently been terraformed and/or settled) serving as stand-ins for the backdrop of lawlessness and economic expansion that were predominant in the American west, Examples include the Sean Connery film Outland, the Firefly television series, and the film sequel Serenity by Joss Whedon, as well as the manga and anime series Trigun, Outlaw st*r, and Cowboy Bebop,Other sub-genresThis section requires expansion, (June 2008)Anthropological science fictionThis section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013)is a sub-genre that absorbs and discusses anthropology and the study of human kind, Examples include Hominids by Robert J, Sawyer, and Neanderthal by John Darnton,BiopunkThis section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013)focuses on biotechnology and subversives,Comic science fictionThis section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013)is a sub-genre that exploits the genre's conventions for comic effect,Feminist science fiction poses questions about social issues such as how society constructs gender roles, the role reproduction plays in defining gender and the unequal political and personal power of men and women, Some of the most notable feminist science fiction works have illustrated these themes using utopias to explore a society in which gender differences or gender power imbalances do not exist, or dystopias to explore worlds in which gender inequalities are intensified, thus asserting a need for feminist work to continue, Joanna Russ's work, and some of Ursula Le Guin's work can be thus categorized,SteampunkThis section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013)is based on the idea of futuristic technology existing in the past, usually the 19th century, and often set in Victorian era England—but with prominent elements of either science fiction or fantasy, such as fictional technological inventions like those found in the works of H, G, Wells and Jules Verne, or real technological developments like the computer occurring at an earlier date, Popular examples include The Difference Engine by William Gibson and Bruce Sterling, as well as the Girl Genius series by Phil and Kaja Foglio, although seeds of the genre may be seen in certain works of Michael Moorcock, Philip Jose Farmer and Steve Stiles, and in such games as Space 1889 and Marcus Rowland's Forgotten Futures, Machines are most often powered by steam in this genre (hence the name),Dieselpunk takes over where Steampunk leaves off, These are stories that take over as we usher in the machine-heavy eras of WWI and WWII, The use of diesel-powered machines plays heavily, In this (like its steam counterpart), the focus is on the technology,Science-fiction poetryThis section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (January 2013)is poetry that has the characteristics or subject matter of science fiction, Science fiction poetry's main sources are the sciences and the literary movement of science fiction prose, An extended discussion of the field is given in Suzette Haden Elgin's The Science Fiction Poetry Handbook, where she compares and contrasts it to both mainstream poetry and to prose science fiction, The former, she maintains, uses figures of speech unencumbered by noncompliant details, whereas these details can be key elements in science-fiction poetry, Prose in science fiction has the time to develop a setting and a story, whereas a poem in the field is normally constrained by its short length to rely on some device to get a point across quickly, Elgin says that the effectiveness of this kind of poetry pivots around the correct use of presupposition, , The Science Fiction Association is an international organization of speculative poets,  which gives the annual Rhysling awards for speculative poetry, An early example of science fiction in poetry is in Alfred, Lord Tennyson's "Locksley Hall", where he introduces a picture of the future with "When I dipt into the future far as human eye could see,,,," This poem was written in 1835, near the end of the first Industrial Revolution, Poetry was only sparingly published in traditional science-fiction outlets such as pulp magazines until the New Wave,  By the 1980s there were magazines specifically devoted to science-fiction poetry, Related genresSpeculative fiction, fantasy, and horrorFor more details on this topic, see speculative fiction,The broader category of speculative fiction includes science fiction, fantasy, alternate histories (which may have no particular scientific or futuristic component), and even literary stories that contain fantastic elements, such as the work of Jorge Luis Borges or John Barth, For some editors, magic realism is considered to be within the broad definition of speculative fiction,FantasyMain article: FantasyFantasy is closely associated with science fiction, and many writers have worked in both genres, while writers such as Anne McCaffrey, Ursula K, LeGuin, and Marion Zimmer Bradley have written works that appear to blur the boundary between the two related genres, The authors' professional organization is called the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA), SF conventions routinely have programming on fantasy topics, and fantasy authors such as J, K, Rowling have won the highest honor within the science fiction field, the Hugo Award,In general, science fiction differs from fantasy in that the former concerns things that might someday be possible or that at least embody the pretense of realism, Supernaturalism, usually absent in science fiction, is the distinctive characteristic of fantasy literature, A dictionary definition referring to fantasy literature is "fiction characterized by highly fanciful or supernatural elements,"  Examples of fantasy supernaturalism include magic (spells, harm to opponents), magical places (Narnia, Oz, Middle Earth, Hogwarts), supernatural creatures (witches, vampires, orcs, trolls), supernatural transportation (flying broomsticks, ruby slippers, windows between worlds), and shapeshifting (beast into man, man into wolf or bear, lion into sheep), Such things are basic themes in fantasy, Literary critic Fredric Jameson has characterized the difference between the two genres by describing science fiction as turning "on a formal framework determined by concepts of the mode of production rather than those of religion" - that is, science fiction texts are bound by an inner logic based more on historical materialism than on magic or the forces of good and evil, Some narratives are described as being essentially science fiction but "with fantasy elements", The term "science fantasy" is sometimes used to describe such material,Horror fictionMain article: Horror fictionHorror fiction is the literature of the unnatural and supernatural, with the aim of unsettling or frightening the reader, sometimes with graphic violence, Historically it has also been known as weird fiction, Although horror is not per se a branch of science fiction, many works of horror literature incorporates science fictional elements, One of the defining classical works of horror, Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein, is the first fully realized work of science fiction, where the manufacture of the monster is given a rigorous science-fictional grounding, The works of Edgar Allan Poe also helped define both the science fiction and the horror genres, Today horror is one of the most popular categories of films, Horror is often mistakenly categorized as science fiction at the point of distribution by libraries, video rental outlets, etc, For example, Syfy (distributed via cable and satellite television in the United States) currently devotes most its air time to horror films with very few science fiction titles,Mystery fictionMain article: Mystery fictionWorks in which science and technology are a dominant theme, but based on current reality, may be considered mainstream fiction, Much of the thriller genre would be included, such as the novels of Tom Clancy or Michael Crichton, or the James Bond films, Modernist works from writers like Kurt Vonnegut, Philip K, Dick, and Stanislaw Lem have focused on speculative or existential perspectives on contemporary reality and are on the borderline between SF and the mainstream, According to Robert J, Sawyer, "Science fiction and mystery have a great deal in common, Both prize the intellectual process of puzzle solving, and both require stories to be plausible and hinge on the way things really do work," Isaac Asimov, Walter Mosley, and other writers incorporate mystery elements in their science fiction, and vice versa,Superhero fictionMain article: Superhero fictionSuperhero fiction is a genre characterized by beings with much higher than usual capability and prowess, generally with a desire or need to help the citizens of their chosen country or world by using his or her powers to defeat natural or superpowered threats, Many superhero fiction characters involve themselves (either intentionally or accidentally) with science fiction and fact, including advanced technologies, alien worlds, time travel, and interdimensional travel; but the standards of scientific plausibility are lower than with actual science fiction, Authors of this genre include Stan Lee (co-creator of Spider-Man, the Fantastic Four, the X-Men, and the Hulk); Marv Wolfman, the creator of Blade for Marvel Comics, and The New Teen Titans for DC Comics; Dean Wesley Smith (Smallville, Spider-Man, and X-Men novels) and Superman writers Roger Stern and Elliot S! Maggin,Fandom and communityFor more details on this topic, see Science fiction fandom,Science fiction fandom is the "community of the literature of ideas,,, the culture in which new ideas emerge and grow before being released into society at large", Members of this community, "fans", are in contact with each other at conventions or clubs, through print or online fanzines, or on the Internet using web sites, mailing lists, and other resources,SF fandom emerged from the letters column in Amazing Stories magazine, Soon fans began writing letters to each other, and then grouping their comments together in informal publications that became known as fanzines, Once they were in regular contact, fans wanted to meet each other, and they organized local clubs, In the 1930s, the first science fiction conventions gathered fans from a wider area, Conventions, clubs, and fanzines were the dominant form of fan activity, or "fanac", for decades, until the Internet facilitated communication among a much larger population of interested people,AwardsFor more details on this topic, see List of science fiction awards,Among the most respected awards for science fiction are the Hugo Award, presented by the World Science Fiction Society at Worldcon; the Nebula Award, presented by SFWA and voted on by the community of authors; and the John W, Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel and Theodore Sturgeon Memorial Award for short fiction, One notable award for science fiction films is the Saturn Award, It is presented annually by The Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror Films,There are national awards, like Canada's Aurora Award, regional awards, like the Endeavour Award presented at Orycon for works from the Pacific Northwest, special interest or subgenre awards like the Chesley Award for art or the World Fantasy Award for fantasy, Magazines may organize reader polls, notably the Locus Award,Conventions, clubs, and organizationsFor more details on this topic, see Science fiction conventions,Pamela Dean reading at MiniconConventions (in fandom, shortened as "cons"), are held in cities around the world, catering to a local, regional, national, or international membership, General-interest conventions cover all aspects of science fiction, while others focus on a particular interest like media fandom, filking, etc, Most are organized by volunteers in non-profit groups, though most media-oriented events are organized by commercial promoters, The convention's activities are called the "program", which may include panel discussions, readings, autograph sessions, costume masquerades, and other events, Activities that occur throughout the convention are not part of the program; these commonly include a dealer's room, art show, and hospitality lounge (or "con suites"),Conventions may host award ceremonies; Worldcons present the Hugo Awards each year, SF societies, referred to as "clubs" except in formal contexts, form a year-round base of activities for science fiction fans, They may be associated with an ongoing science fiction convention, or have regular club meetings, or both, Most groups meet in libraries, schools and universities, community centers, pubs or restaurants, or the homes of individual members, Long-established groups like the New England Science Fiction Association and the Los Angeles Science Fantasy Society have clubhouses for meetings and storage of convention supplies and research materials, The Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA) was founded by Damon Knight in 1965 as a non-profit organization to serve the community of professional science fiction authors, 24 years after his essay "Unite or Fie!" had led to the organization of the National Fantasy Fan Federation, Fandom has helped incubate related groups, including media fandom, the Society for Creative Anachronism, gaming, filking, and furry fandom,Fanzines and online fandomFor more details on this topic, see Science fiction fanzine,The first science fiction fanzine, The Comet, was published in 1930, Fanzine printing methods have changed over the decades, from the hectograph, the mimeograph, and the ditto machine, to modern photocopying, Distribution volumes rarely justify the cost of commercial printing, Modern fanzines are printed on computer printers or at local copy shops, or they may only be sent as email, The best known fanzine (or "'zine") today is Ansible, edited by David Langford, winner of numerous Hugo awards, Other fanzines to win awards in recent years include File 770, Mimosa, and Plokta, Artists working for fanzines have risen to prominence in the field, including Brad W, Foster, Teddy Harvia, and Joe Mayhew; the Hugos include a category for Best Fan Artists, The earliest organized fandom online was the SF Lovers community, originally a mailing list in the late 1970s with a text archive file that was updated regularly, In the 1980s, Usenet groups greatly expanded the circle of fans online, In the 1990s, the development of the World-Wide Web exploded the community of online fandom by orders of magnitude, with thousands and then literally millions of web sites devoted to science fiction and related genres for all media, Most such sites are small, ephemeral, and/or very narrowly focused, though sites like SF Site offer a broad range of references and reviews about science fiction,Fan fictionFor more details on this topic, see Fan fiction,Fan fiction, known to aficionados as "fanfic", is non-commercial fiction created by fans in the setting of an established book, film, video game, or television series, This modern meaning of the term should not be confused with the traditional (pre-1970s) meaning of "fan fiction" within the community of fandom, where the term meant original or parody fiction written by fans and published in fanzines, often with members of fandom as characters therein ("faan fiction"), Examples of this would include the Goon Defective Agency stories, written st*rting in 1956 by Irish fan John Berry and published in his and Arthur Thomson's fanzine Retribution, In the last few years, sites have appeared such as Orion's Arm and Galaxiki, which encourage collaborative development of science fiction universes, In some cases, the copyright owners of the books, films, or television series have instructed their lawyers to issue "cease and desist" letters to fans,Science fiction studiesFor more details on this topic, see Science fiction studies,The study of science fiction, or science fiction studies, is the critical assessment, interpretation, and discussion of science fiction literature, film, new media, fandom, and fan fiction, Science fiction scholars take science fiction as an object of study in order to better understand it and its relationship to science, technology, politics, and culture-at-large, Science fiction studies has a long history dating back to the turn of the 20th century, but it was not until later that science fiction studies solidified as a discipline with the publication of the academic journals Extrapolation (1959), Foundation - The International Review of Science Fiction (1972), and Science Fiction Studies (1973), and the establishment of the oldest organizations devoted to the study of science fiction, the Science Fiction Research Association and the Science Fiction Foundation, in 1970, The field has grown considerably since the 1970s with the establishment of more journals, organizations, and conferences with ties to the science fiction scholarship community, and science fiction degree-granting programs such as those offered by the University of Liverpool and Kansas University,The National Science Foundation has conducted surveys of "Public Attitudes and Public Understanding" of "Science Fiction and Pseudoscience", They write that "Interest in science fiction may affect the way people think about or relate to science,,,,one study found a strong relationship between preference for science fiction novels and support for the space program,,,The same study also found that students who read science fiction are much more likely than other students to believe that contacting extraterrestrial civilizations is both possible and desirable (Bainbridge 1982),Science fiction as serio